Siphlonuroidea

Interpretive diagram of holotype abdomen of Siberiogenites mongolicus, from Sinitshenkova (2002).

Belongs within: Pisciformia.

The Siphlonuroidea are a group of mayflies whose members are united by symplesiomorphies only, with unmodified wings and nymphs usually with a plesiomorphic swimming mode (Kluge & Sinitshenkova 2002). They include the Jurassic and Cretaceous Hexagenitidae which are among the most abundant mayflies in deposits of the latter period.

Characters (from Kluge & Sinitshenkova 2002): Wings anteritornal. Nymphs usually with legs able to be pressed to body being stretched posteriorly, abdomen capable of undulating dorsoventral swimming movement, cerci and paracercus much shorter than in imago, with swimming setae (each cercus with row of setae on inner side only, paracercus with pair of such rows on lateral sides), so cerci and paracercus functioning as horizontal caudal flipper.

<==Siphlonuroidea
    |  i. s.: Cretoneta zherichiniKS02, P92
    |         PromiraraKS02
    |         AustralurusKS02
    |         DulcimannaKS02
    |         Siphlurites explanatusD70c
    |--Acanthametropodidae [Acanthametropodinae]ZP03
    |    |--Acanthametropus [incl. Metreturus Burks 1953]EK72
    |    |    |--A. nikolskyi Tshernova 1948EK72
    |    |    `--A. pecatonica (Burks 1953) [=*Metreturus pecatonica]EK72
    |    `--Analetris Edmunds in Edmunds & Koss 1972EK72
    |         `--*A. eximia Edmunds in Edmunds & Koss 1972EK72
    |--AmeletusTYM08 [AmeletidaeZP03]
    |    |--A. camtshaticus Ulmer 1923K03
    |    `--A. punctatus Takahashi 1931TYM08
    |--NesameletidaeZP03
    |    |--Nesameletus ornatusPC66
    |    |--Ameletoides lacusalbinaeZP03, PC91
    |    `--MetamoniusZP03
    |--SiphluriscidaeZP03
    |    |--Siphluriscus Ulmer 1920ZP03
    |    |    `--S. chinensis Ulmer 1920ZP03
    |    `--Stackelbergisca Tshernova 1967ZP03
    |         |--*S. sibirica Tshernova 1967ZP03
    |         `--S. shaburensisZP03
    |--AmetropodidaeKS02
    |    |--AmetropodinaeD68
    |    |    |--Ametropus fragilis Albarda 1878K03
    |    |    `--Brevitibia Demoulin 1968D68
    |    |         `--*B. intricans Demoulin 1968D68
    |    `--Metretopodinae [Metretopodidae]D68
    |         |--Siphloplecton Clemens 1915D70a
    |         |    |--S. jaegeri Demoulin 1968D70a
    |         |    `--S. macrops (Pictet 1856) [=Palingenia macrops]D68
    |         `--Metretopus Eaton 1901D68
    |              |--M. henningseniD68
    |              `--M. trinervis Demoulin 1968D68
    |--Siphlonuridae [Siphlonurinae, Siphlonurini]D70b
    |    |--Proameletus caudatusKS02
    |    |--Mesobaetis mandalensisS02a
    |    |--MogzonurellaS02a
    |    |--Mogzonurus elevatusRJ93
    |    |--Albisca tracheataS02b
    |    |--Olgisca Demoulin 1970D70b
    |    |    `--*O. schwertschlageri (Handlirsch 1908) [=Paedephemera schwertschlageri]D70b
    |    |--Baltameletus Demoulin 1968D68
    |    |    `--*B. oligocaenicus Demoulin 1968D68
    |    `--Siphlonurus Eaton 1968D68
    |         |--S. davidi (Navás 1932) [=Siphluriscus davidi]ZP03
    |         `--S. dubiosus Demoulin 1968D68
    `--Hexagenitidae [Paedephemeridea, Stenodicranidae]D70b
         |--Mongologenites laqueatusS02a
         |--Hexameropsis seliniS02a
         |--Cratogenites corradiniaeS02a
         |--Protoligoneuria [incl. Cratogenitoides]SBG11
         |    `--P. limaiS02a
         |--Hexagenites Scudder 1880 [incl. Paedephemera Handlirsch 1908; Hexagenitinae, Paedephemeridae]D70b
         |    `--H. cellulosus (Hagen 1862) (see below for synonymy)D70b
         |--Ephemeropsis [Ephemeropsidae]D70b
         |    |--E. melanurusKS02
         |    `--E. trisetalisS02a
         |--PalaeobaetodesS02a
         |    |--P. britoiS02a
         |    `--P. costalimaiS02a
         `--Siberiogenites Sinitshenkova 1985S02b
              |--S. angustatusRJ93
              |--S. mediusS02b
              |--S. mongolicus Sinitshenkova 2002S02b
              `--S. rotundatusS02b

Hexagenites cellulosus (Hagen 1862) [=Ephemera cellulosa, Mesemphera cellulosa; incl. E. mortua Hagen 1862, Paedephemera mortua, E. multinervosa Oppenheim 1888, *P. multinervosa, P. oppenheimi Handlirsch 1908, *Hexagenites weyenberghi Scudder 1880]D70b

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[D68] Demoulin, G. 1968. Deuxième contribution à la connaissance des ephéméroptères de l’ambre oligocène de la Baltique. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift (N. F.) 15 (1–3): 233–276.

[D70a] Demoulin, G. 1970a. Troisieme contribution a la connaisance des ephemeropteres d l’ambre Oligocene de la Baltique. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (2): 1–11.

[D70b] Demoulin, G. 1970b. Contribution a l’etude morphologique, systematique et phylogenique de ephemeropteres Jurassiques d’Europe centrale. V. Hexagenitidae = Paedephemeridae (syn. nov.) Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (4): 1–8.

[D70c] Demoulin, G. 1970c. Contribution a la connaisance de ephemeropteres du Miocene. I. Siphlurites explanatus Cockerell. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (5): 1–4.

[EK72] Edmunds, G. F., Jr & R. W. Koss. 1972. A review of the Acanthametropodinae with a description of a new genus (Ephemeroptera: Siphlonuridae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (2): 136–144.

[K03] Kluge, N. J. 2003. About evolution and homology of genital appendages of insects. Trudy Russkogo Entomologicheskogo Obshestva [Proceedings of the Russian Entomological Society] 74: 3–16.

[KS02] Kluge, N. Yu., & N. D. Sinitshenkova. 2002. Order Ephemerida Latreille, 1810. The true mayflies (=Ephemeroptera Hyatt et Arms, 1891 (s. l.); =Euephemeroptera Kluge, 2000. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 89–97. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[PC66] Pendergrast, J. G., & D. R. Cowley. 1966. An Introduction to New Zealand Freshwater Insects. Collins: Auckland.

[PC91] Peters, W. L., & I. C. Campbell. 1991. Ephemeroptera (mayflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 279–293. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S02a] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002a. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S02b] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002b. New late Mesozoic mayflies from the Shar-Teeg locality, Mongolia (Insecta, Ephemerida = Ephemeroptera). Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 2002 (3): 43–48 (translated: Paleontological Journal 36 (3): 270–276).

[SBG11] Staniczek, A. H., G. Bechly & R. J. Godunko. 2011. Coxoplectoptera, a new fossil order of Palaeoptera (Arthropoda: Insecta), with comments on the phylogeny of the stem group of mayflies (Ephemeroptera). Insect Systematics and Evolution 42: 101–138.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[ZP03] Zhou, C.-F., & J. G. Peters. 2003. The nymph of Siphluriscus chinensis and additional imaginal description: a living mayfly with Jurassic origin (Siphluriscidae new family: Ephemeroptera). Florida Entomologist 86 (3): 345–352.

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