Spherical aggregations of Cladophora socialis, from Tsutsui et al. (2015).

Belongs within: Tetraphytae.

The Siphonocladales are an order of green algae with thalli composed of large siphonous, tubular or vesiculate cells (Norris 2010).

Characters (from Norris 2010): Algae of various forms, composed of large tubular, siphonous, or vesiculate cells formed by either lenticular cells, or by internal segregative cell divisio. In segregative division, protoplast cleaves into protoplasmic spheres, which, in turn, may either form new cell walls, remain in parental cell, or be released as vegetative propagules. Endogenous expansion of protoplasmic spheres within parental vesicle results in formation of pseudoparenchymatous tissue. Cells may divide by centripetal invagination of cell walls, but with new branches remaining in open connection (i.e., lack septa) at base of parent cell. New lateral branches may also arise by expansion of lenticular cells; i.e., septa initiated prior to elongation of vesicular branch on surface of parent vesicle. Cells cylindrical or inflated, globose, clavate, or vesiculate. Simultaneous formation of laterals at nodes, branching can be in three directions. Tenacular cells formed are one of four different kinds, secondary anastomoses usually formed.

<==Siphonocladales [Siphonophyta]
    |    |--Boergesenia Feldmann 1938HL09
    |    |    `--B. forbesii (Harvey) Feldmann 1938 [=Valonia forbesii Harvey 1860]HL09
    |    |--Ernodesmis Børgesen 1912N10
    |    |    `--E. verticillata (Kützing) Børgesen 1912 [=Valonia verticillata Kützing 1847]N10
    |    |--Dictyosphaeria Decaisne 1842N10
    |    |    |--D. australis Stchell 1926N10
    |    |    |--D. cavernosa (Forsskål) Børgesen 1932N10 [=Ulva cavernosa Forsskål 1775HL09]
    |    |    `--D. versluysii Weber-van Bosse 1905N10
    |    `--Siphonocladus Schmitz 1879L-BC03, N10
    |         |--S. pusillus (Agardh) Hauck 1884 (see below for synonymy)N10
    |         |--S. tropicusL-BC03
    |         `--S. valonioides (Sonder) Rbd. 1899 [=Cladophora valonioides]L27
    `--+--+--‘Cladophora’ catenata (Linnaeus) Kützing 1843HL09, HS14
       |  |--‘Cladophora’ coelothrix Kützing 1843L-BC03, HL09
       |  |--‘Cladophora’ liebetruthiiHL09
       |  |--‘Cladophora’ prolifera (Roth) Kützing 1843HL09, N10 [=Conferva prolifera Roth 1797N10]
       |  |--‘Cladophora’ sibogaeHL09
       |  `--‘Cladophora’ socialis Kützing 1849HL09
       |    |--Microdictyon Decaisne 1841L-BC03, N10
       |    |    |--M. boergeseniiL-BC03
       |    |    |--M. okamurae Setchell 1925HL09
       |    |    `--M. umbilicatum (Velley) Zanardini 1862HS14
       |    `--Anadyomena Lamouroux 1812N10
       |         |--A. plicata Agardh 1823 [incl. A. brownii]HL09
       |         |--A. stellataW03
       |         `--A. wrightii Harvey ex Gray 1866HL09
          |    |--Valoniopsis Børgesen 1934N10
          |    |    |--V. hancockii Dawson 1944N10
          |    |    `--V. pachynema (Martens) Børgesen 1934 (see below for synonymy)N10
          |    `--Valonia Agardh 1823L-BC03, N10
          |         |--V. aegagropila Agardh 1823HS14
          |         |--V. fastigiata Harvey ex Agardh 1887HL09
          |         |--V. macrophysa Kützing 1843N10
          |         |--V. utricularisL-BC03
          |         `--V. ventricosa Agardh 1887 [=Ventricaria ventricosa]HL09
               |--Struveopsis Rhyne & Robinson 1969N10
               |--Willeella Børgesen 1930N10
               |--Struvea Sonder 1845N10
               |    `--S. plumosaH04
               |--Chamaedoris Montagne 1842N10
               |    `--C. peniculumL-BC03
               |--Boodlea (Dickie) Muuray & De Toni in Murray 1889N10
               |    |--B. composita (Harvey) Brand 1904N10 [=Conferva composita Harvey 1834HL09]
               |    `--B. vanbosseae Reinbold 1905HL09
               |--Cladophoropsis Børgesen 1905L-BC03, N10
               |    |--C. gracillima Dawson 1950N10
               |    |--C. macromeres Taylor 1928N10
               |    |--C. membranacea (Hofman Bang ex Agard) Børgesen 1905 [=Cladophora membranacea]N10
               |    |--C. sundanensis Reinbold 1905HL09
               |    `--C. vaucheriiformis (Areschoug) Papenfuss 1958HS14
               `--Phyllodictyon Gray 1866N10
                    |--P. anastomosans (Harvey) Kraft & Wynne 1996 [=Struvea anastomosans]N10
                    |--P. orientale (Gepp & Gepp) Kraft & Wynne 1996 [=Struvea orientalis Gepp & Gepp 1908]HL09
                    |--P. pulcherrimum Gray 1866 (see below for synonymy)N10
                    `--P. robustum (Setchell & Gardner) Leliaert & Wysor in Leliaert et al. 2008 (see below for synonymy)N10

Phyllodictyon pulcherrimum Gray 1866 [=Cladophoropsis pulcherrima (Gray) Leliaert & Coppejans in Leliaert 2004, Struvea pulcherrima (Gray) Murray & Boodle 1888; incl. S. ramosa Dickie 1874]N10

Phyllodictyon robustum (Setchell & Gardner) Leliaert & Wysor in Leliaert et al. 2008 [=Cladophoropsis robusta Setchell & Gardner 1924, Pseudostruvea robusta (Setchell & Gardner) Egerod 1975, Struveopsis robusta (Setchell & Gardner) Rhyne & Robinson 1969; incl. Willeella mexicana Dawson 1950, Cladophoropsis mexicana (Dawson) Leliaert & Coppejans in Leliaert 2004]N10

Siphonocladus pusillus (Agardh) Hauck 1884 [=Valonia pusilla Agardh ex Kützing 1849; incl. *S. wilbergii Schmitz 1879]N10

Valoniopsis pachynema (Martens) Børgesen 1934 [=Bryopsis pachynema Martens 1868, Valonia pachynema (Martens) Weber-van Bosse 1913]N10

*Type species of generic name indicated


[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HL09] Huisman, J. M., F. Leliaert, H. Veerbruggen & R. A. Townsend. 2009. Marine benthic plants of Western Australia’s shelf-edge atolls. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 50–87.

[HS14] Huisman, J. M., & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: marine plants. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 45–67.

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[L-BC03] López-Bautista, J. M., & R. L. Chapman. 2003. Phylogenetic affinities of the Trentepohliales inferred from small-subunit rDNA. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2099–2106.

[N10] Norris, J. N. 2010. Marine algae of the northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: 1–276.

[W03] Womersley, H. B. S. 2003. The Marine Benthic Flora of southern Australia. Rhodophytapart IIID. CeramialesDelesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 18. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra, and the State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide.

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