Aspidosiphon sp., copyright Moorea Biocode.

Belongs within: Eumetazoa.
Contains: Sipunculida.

The Sipuncula, peanut worms, are a group of marine worms with a retractile proboscis (Howell 1962). Though often treated as a distinct ‘phylum’ within the animals, recent analyses have suggested that they may be derived annelids that have secondarily lost segmentation.

Characters (from Howell 1962): Body unsegmented or poorly segmented, cylindrical or subcylindrical; retractile introvert present at anterior end, may be armed with chitinous hooks.

<==Sipuncula [Sipunculoidea]
    |--Archaeogolfingia caudataEL11, C12
    `--+--Cambrosipunculus tentaculatusPE16, C12
               |--Aspidosiphonidae [Aspidosiphoniformes]CG85
               |    |--Cloeosiphon aspergillus (Quatrefages 1865)CG85, RP07
               |    `--+--LithacrosiphonCG85
               |       `--AspidosiphonCG85
               |            |--A. albus Murina 1967E86
               |            |--A. clavatusM62
               |            |--A. elegansMA10
               |            |--A. exiguus Edmonds 1974E86
               |            |--A. laevis Quatrefages 1865BS17
               |            |--A. misakiensisGD00
               |            |--A. muelleriMS98
               |            |--A. spinalisE86
               |            |--A. tenuis Sluiter 1886FP15
               |            `--A. zinniE86
               `--Phascolosomatidae [Phascolosomaformes]CG85
                    |    |--A. misakianumPH06
                    |    `--A. murinae (Cutler 1969)MA10
                    `--+--Antillesoma antillarum (Grube & Öersted 1858)CG85, RP07
                            |--P. agassiziiMA10
                            |--P. antillarumCH97
                            |--P. arcuatum (Gray 1828)BS17
                            |--P. australeHa15
                            |--P. eremitaHa15
                            |--P. granulatumZHT01
                            |--P. japonicaKBC03
                            |--P. margaritaceumO01
                            |--P. nigrescens (Keferstein 1865)BS17
                            |--P. pellucidumHa15
                            |--P. saprophagicumMA10
                            `--P. turneraeMA10
Sipuncula incertae sedis:
  Epitrachys Ehlers 1869H62
    `--*E. rugosus Ehlers 1869H62
  Lecathylus Weller 1925H62
    `--*L. gregarius Weller 1925H62
  Schizoproboscina Yakovlev 1939H62
    `--*S. ivanovi Yakovlev 1939H62
  Stoma Hadding 1913H62
    `--*S. hians Hadding 1913H62
  ‘Protholothuria’ annulataFE66
  Physcosoma granulatumPP64
    |--D. dehamataHe15
    `--D. pyroidesA99

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (translated: 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[BS17] Bryce, C., & A. Sampey. 2017. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: additional phyla (Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Annelida, Platyhelminthes, Sipuncula, Cnidaria and Chordata). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 345–361.

[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[C12] Chen, J.-Y. 2012. Evolutionary scenario of the early history of the animal kingdom: evidence from Precambrian (Ediacaran) Weng’an and Early Cambrian Maotianshan biotas, China. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 239–379. Springer.

[CG85] Cutler, E. B., & P. E. Gibbs. 1985. A phylogenetic analysis of higher taxa in the phylum Sipuncula. Systematic Zoology 34 (2): 162–173.

[E86] Edmonds, S. J. 1986. Sipuncula. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) p. 209. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[EL11] Erwin, D. H., M. Laflamme, S. M. Tweedt, E. A. Sperling, D. Pisani & K. J. Peterson. 2011. The Cambrian conundrum: early divergence and later ecological success in the early history of animals. Science 334: 1091–1097.

[FP15] Fedosov, A., N. Puillandre, Y. Kantor & P. Bouchet. 2015. Phylogeny and systematics of mitriform gastropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neogastropoda). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 175: 336–359.

[FE66] Frizzell, D. L., & H. Exline. 1966. Holothuroidea—fossil record. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U646–U672. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[GD00] Giribet, G., D. L. Distel, M. Polz, W. Sterrer & W. C. Wheeler. 2000. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology. Systematic Biology 49: 539–562.

[Ha15] Harmer, S. F. 1915. The Polyzoa of the Siboga Expedition—Part I. Entoprocta, Ctenostomata and Cyclostomata. E. J. Brill: Leyden.

[He15] Hedley, C. 1915. Presidential address. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (1): 1–77, pls 1–7.

[H62] Howell, B. F. 1962. Worms. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W144–W177. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267–283.

[MA10] Maiorova, A., & A. Adrianov. 2010. Distribution of peanut worms (Sipuncula) in the west Pacific. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 13–17. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[MS98] Margulis, L., & K. V. Schwartz. 1998. Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth 3rd ed. W. H. Freeman and Company: New York.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[O01] Ohlin, A. 1901. On a new “bipolar” schizopod. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 371–374.

[PE16] Parry, L. A., G. D. Edgecombe, D. Eibye-Jacobsen & J. Vinther. 2016. The impact of fossil data on annelid phylogeny inferred from discrete morphological characters. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 283: 20161378.

[PH06] Passamaneck, Y., & K. M. Halanych. 2006. Lophotrochozoan phylogeny assessed with LSU and SSU data: evidence of lophophorate polyphyly. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 20–28.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[ZHT01] Zrzavý, J., V. Hypša & D. F. Tietz. 2001. Myzostomida are not annelids: molecular and morphological support for a clade of animals with anterior sperm flagella. Cladistics 17: 170–198.

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