Sminthuridae

 Sminthurides aquaticus, copyright Andy Murray.

Belongs within: Collembola.
Contains: Katiannini, Sminthurini, Bourletiellini.

The Sminthuridae are a family of globular springtails in which the antennae are elongate, with the distalmost segment equal to or longer than the penultimate segment. Most species are epigaeic, living in or on leaf litter or on low vegetation (Greenslade 1991).

In members of the subfamilies Sminthuridinae and Katianninae, the corpus of the retinaculum bears lateral appendages at the base of the rami; such appendages are absent in Sminthurinae. Sminthuridinae have the anal and genital segments fused whereas these segments are separated in Katianninae (Womersley 1939). Members of the tribe Spinothecini, found in South America and Australasia, have a pair of sacs encircling the neck (Greenslade 1991).

<==Sminthuridae [Smithurididae]
| i. s.: StenognathriopesCP02
| PapiroidesCP02
| Spatulosminthurus flaviceps (Tullberg 1871)SL06
| Brevimucronus Christiansen & Pike 2002CP02
| `--*B. anomalus Christiansen & Pike 2002CP02
| Keratopygos Christiansen & Pike 2002CP02
| `--*K. megalos Christiansen & Pike 2002CP02
| Pararrhopalites Bonet & Tellez 1948CB81
|--KatianninaeG91
| | i. s.: Collophora Richards 1964CB81
| | `--*C. quadrioculata (Denis 1933) [=Arrhopalites quadrioculata]CB81
| |--KatianniniW39
| `--Adelphoderia [Spinothecini]G91
| `--A. reginaG91
|--SminthurinaeG91
| | i. s.: Vesicephalus Richards 1964CB81
| | |--*V. longisetis (Guthrie 1903) [=Sminthurus longisetis, Neosminthurus longisetis]CB81
| | `--V. occidentalis (Mills 1935) [=Neosminthurus occidentalis]CB81
| |--SminthuriniG91
| `--BourletielliniG91
`--SminthuridinaeG91
|--Pygicornides Betsch & Massoud 1972W74
| `--P. torridusW74
`--Sminthurides Börner 1900 [incl. Prosminthurus Willem 1900; Sminthuridini]W39
| i. s.: S. assimilis (Krausbauer 1898) [=Sminthurus assimilis]CB81
| S. distinctus Linnaniemi 1912CB81
| S. penicillifer (Schäffer 1896) [=Sminthurus penicillifer]CB81
| S. pseudassimilis Stach 1956CB81
| S. pseudoviolaceus Scott 1964 (n. d.)CB81
|--S. (Sminthurides)W39
| |--*S. (S.) aquaticus (Bourlet 1843)CB81 (see below for synonymy)
| |--S. (S.) annulicornis Axelson 1905CB81
| |--S. (S.) aureolus Maynard 1951CB81
| |--S. (S.) bifidus Mills 1934CB81
| |--S. (S.) globocerus Folsom & Mills 1938CB81
| |--S. (S.) hyogramme Pedigo 1966CB81
| |--S. (S.) lepus Mills 1934CB81
| |--S. (S.) macnamarai Folsom & Mills 1938CB81
| |--S. (S.) malmgreni (Tullberg 1876) (see below for synonymy)CB81
| |--S. (S.) occultus Mills 1934CB81
| |--S. (S.) plicatus (Schött 1891) [=Sminthurus plicatus]CB81
| |--S. (S.) signatus Krausbauer 1898W39 [incl. S. krausbaueri Folsom & Mills 1938CB81]
| |--S. (S.) stagnalis Womersley 1934W39
| |--S. (S.) terrestris Maynard 1951CB81
| `--S. (S.) weichseli Christiansen & Bellinger 1981CB81
|--S. (Denisiella Folsom & Mills 1938)CB81
| |--S. (*D.) seurati Denis 1925CB81
| `--S. (D.) sexpinnatus Denis 1931CB81
|--S. (Sphaeridia Linnaniemi 1912)CB81
| |--S. (*S.) pumilis (Krausbauer 1898)CB81 (see below for synonymy)
| `--S. (S.) serratus Folsom & Mills 1938CB81
`--S. (Stenacidia Börner 1906) [incl. Jeannenotia Stach 1956]CB81
|--S. (*S.) violacea (Reuter 1881)CB81 [=Sminthurus violaceusCB81, Jeannenotia violaceaG91]
`--S. (S.) stachi Jeannenot 1955 [=*Jeannenotia stachi]CB81

*Sminthurides (Sminthurides) aquaticus (Bourlet 1843)CB81 [=Smynthurus aquaticusCB81, Sminthurus aquaticusW39; incl. Smynthurus amicus Folsom 1896W39, Prosminthurus amicusW39, Sminthurides amicusW39, Sminthurus levanderi Reuter in Schött 1893CB81, Sminthurus apicalis var. levanderiW39, Sminthurides aquaticus var. levanderiW39, Sminthurus aquaticus var. levanderiW39]

Sminthurides (Sminthurides) malmgreni (Tullberg 1876) [incl. Smi. malmgreni var. elegantulus Reuter 1881, Smi. immaculatus Axelson 1905, Smi. ludovicianus Folsom & Mills 1938, Smi. maculatus Agren 1903, Smi. palustris Folsom & Mills 1938, Smi. quadrilineatus Agren 1903, Smynthurus socialis Folsom 1896]CB81

Sminthurides (Sphaeridia) pumilis (Krausbauer 1898)CB81 [=Sminthurus pumilisCB81; incl. Sminthurides globosus Axelson 1902W39, Smithurus minimus Schött 1893 (n. d.)CB81]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CB81] Christiansen, K., & P. Bellinger. 1981. The Collembola of North America north of the Rio Grande: A taxonomic analysis vol. 4. Families Neelidae and Sminthuridae; glossary; bibliography; index. Grinnell College: Grinnell (Iowa).

[CP02] Christiansen, K., & E. Pike. 2002. Cretaceous Collembola (Arthropoda, Hexapoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Canada. Cretaceous Research 23: 165–188.

[G91] Greenslade, P. J. 1991. Collembola (springtails). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 252–264. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[SL06] Schulz, H.-J., & P. Lymberakis. 2006. First contribution to the knowledge of the Collembola fauna of the White Mountains (Lefká Óri) in west Crete (Insecta, Collembola, Isotomidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 229–234.

[W74] Wallace, M. M. H. 1974. The entognathous hexapods. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 31–32.Melbourne University Press.

[W39] Womersley, H. 1939. Primitive Insects of South Australia: Silverfish, springtails, and their allies. South Australian Branch of the British Science Guild: Adelaide.

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