Solen sp., copyright Ria Tan.

Belongs within: Heterodonta.

The Solenoidea, razor shells, are thin-shelled, infaunal bivalves that live in more or less permanent tubes oriented vertically or obliquely in the sediment (Beesley et al. 1998).

Characters (from Beesley et al. 1998): Shell thin, fragile, narrowly elongate, rectangular, cylindrical or laterally compressed, gaping widely at each end. Shell comprising two aragonitic layers, an outer crossed-lamellar layer and an inner complex crossed-lamellar or homogeneous layer. Umbones more or less terminal; hinge relatively small with delicate, peg-like cardinal teeth (lateral teeth absent) in front of external ligament. Pallial sinus short. Anterior adductor larger than posterior adductor, both placed dorsally. Anterior pedal retractor usually with two insertions in each valve. Cruciform muscle absent.

    |--Pharidae [Cultellidae, Pharellidae]GW02
    |    |  i. s.: EnsisGW02
    |    |           |--E. arcuatusBRW98
    |    |           |--E. directusPC11
    |    |           |--E. ensisGW02
    |    |           `--E. siliquaPP64
    |    |         CultellusH09
    |    |           |--C. cultellus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Solen cultellus]H09
    |    |           |--C. hanleyi Dunker 1861H09
    |    |           `--C. pellucidusPP64
    |    |         Leptosolen biplicata (Conrad 1858)SB93
    |    |         Senis petschorae (Keyserling 1846)SB93
    |    |         PhaxasBRW98
    |    |           |--P. cultellus (Linné 1758)S-S90
    |    |           `--P. pellucidusGO06
    |    |         Siliqua patulaBRW98, K91
    |    |         NeosiliquaBRW98
    |    |         OrbiculariaBRW98
    |    |         NovaculininaeG88
    |    |           |--NovaculinaBRW98
    |    |           `--Sinovacula constricta (Lamarck 1818)G88, TW07
    |    |--Ensiculus cultellus (Linnaeus 1758)TW07, MG-H11
    |    `--+--Pharus legumen (Linnaeus 1758)TW07
    |       `--Pharella javanica (Lamarck 1818)TW07
         |--Leptodomus nuciformis Etheridge 1895-1896JB12, F71
         `--Solen Linnaeus 1758L58
              |--S. acinaces Hanley 1843H43
              |--S. acuminatus Hanley 1842H42
              |--S. acutidensH42
              |--S. ambiguus [=Ensatella ambigua; incl. S. medius]C64
              |--S. anatinus Linnaeus 1758L58
              |--S. arcuatus Tchang & Huang 1965XZ10
              |--S. aureomaculatusBRW98
              |--S. brevisH43
              |--S. bullatus Linnaeus 1758L58
              |--S. corneusC64
              |--S. correctusBRW98
              |--S. cylindraceus Hanley 1843H43
              |--S. dunkeriana Clessin 1888XZ10
              |--S. ensis Linnaeus 1758L58
              |--S. exiguusBRW98
              |--S. fonesiiBRW98
              |--S. gracilis Gould 1861C64
              |--S. grandis Dunker 1861XZ10
              |--S. inaequivalvis Linnaeus 1758L58
              |--S. kajiyamaiBRW98
              |--S. krusonsterni Schreuck 1867XZ10
              |--S. legumen Linnaeus 1758L58
              |--S. linearisH43
              |--S. marginatusPP64
              |--S. niveusG79
              |--S. obliquusG79 [=Solena obliquaC64; incl. Solen rudisC64]
              |--S. pellucidusN79
              |--S. philippinarum Hanley 1843H43
              |--S. rostratus Lightfoot 1786K65
              |--S. scalprumH43
              |--S. sicarius [incl. S. rosaceus]C64
              |--S. siliqua Linnaeus 1758L58
              |--S. sloanii Hanley 1842H09
              |--S. strictus Gould 1861C64
              |--S. subteres [incl. S. californianus, S. dombei]C64
              |--S. vagina Linnaeus 1758H09
              `--S. vaginoides Lamarck 1818TW07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H42] Hanley, S. 1842. Descriptions of four new species of bivalve shells belonging to the genera Solen, Psammobia and Cytherea. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 122–123.

[H43] Hanley, S. 1843. On new species of Solen and Mesodesma. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 101–102.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[K65] Kay, E. A. 1965. The Reverend John Lightfoot, Daniel Solander, and the Portland Catalogue. Nautilus 79 (1): 10–19.

[K91] Kozloff, E. N. 1991. Malacobdella siliquae sp. nov. and Malacobdella macomae sp. nov., commensal nemerteans from bivalve molluscs on the Pacific coast of North America. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69: 1612–1618.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[PC11] Plazzi, F., A. Ceregato, M. Taviani & M. Passamonti. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of bivalve mollusks: ancient radiations and divergences as revealed by mitochondrial genes. PLoS One 6 (11): e27147.

[SB93] Skelton, P. W., & M. J. Benton. 1993. Mollusca: Rostroconchia, Scaphopoda and Bivalvia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 237–263. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S-S90] Slack-Smith, S. M. 1990. The bivalves of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 129–157. Western Australian Museum.

[TW07] Taylor, J. D., S. T. Williams, E. A. Glover & P. Dyal. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of heterodont bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Heterodonta): new analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA genes. Zoologica Scripta 36 (6): 587–606.

[XZ10] Xu, F., & J. Zhang. 2010. Study on the bivalve faunal composition of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 7–12. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

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