Solifugae

Galeodes sp., copyright Arthur Anker.

Belongs within: Euchelicerata.

The Solifugae, variously called sun spiders, camel spiders or wind scorpions, are fast-moving arachnids found primarily in arid environments. They have a body divided between the prosoma and a segmented opisthosoma, and have conspicuously large, chelate two-segmented chelicerae.

Characters (from International Society of Arachnology): Body divided into two tagmata, the cephalothorax (prosoma) and abdomen (opisthosoma); appendages attached to prosoma. Dorsal plate of cephalothorax divided into propeltidium, mesopeltidium and metapeltidium. Abdomen segmented. Two eyes present, centrally located on dorsum of propeltidium. Chelicerae two-segmented, enormous, projecting forward from cephalothorax; male chelicerae bearing flagella or flagelliform setae. Pedipalps covered in sensory setae; cuticular lips present at tips of pedipalps that open to expose an eversible suctorial organ. Feeding via external digestion; sieve-like rostrum inside mouth opening filters out particulate material. Alimentary system consists of foregut, midgut and hindgut; hindgut bears lateral branches. Extensive tracheal system present that opens via prosomal and opisthosomal spiracles. Heart located dorsally in the abdomen. Brain consists of supra- and subesophageal ganglia. Malleoli (racquet organs) present as fan-like processes extending below ventral surface of last pair of legs. Female solifuge reproductive system includes pair of ovaries with pair of oviducts leading to a single genital chamber. Internal male reproductive system consists of two pairs of testes merging into vasa deferentia, which then merge into the genital chamber.

<==Solifugae [Solpugida]
    |--DaesiidaeKBT11
    |--Protosolpuga [Protosolpugidae]H02
    |    `--*P. carbonaria Petrunkevitch 1913H02
    |--Gluvia [Daesiidae]KBT11
    |    `--G. dorsalis (Latreille 1817)KBT11
    |--Eusimonia [Karschiidae]AP02
    |    |--E. mirabilis Roewer 1934AP02
    |    `--E. wunderlichi Pieper 1977GE02
    |--EremobatidaeDPD16
    |    |--Chanbria regalis Muma 1951DPD16, GE02
    |    `--EremobatesDPD16
    |--Solpuga Lichtenstein 1796H02 [SolpugidaeKBT11]
    |    |--S. barbara Lucas 1846E12
    |    |--S. darlingiiP00
    |    `--S. sagittaria Pocock 1900P00
    |--HexisopodidaeKBT11
    |    |--Chelypus Purcell 1902KBT11
    |    `--Hexisopus Karsch 1879KBT11
    |         `--H. psammophilus Wharton 1981KBT11
    |--CeromidaeR52
    |    |--*Cratosolpuga wunderlichi Selden 1996H02
    |    `--CeromaR52
    |         |--C. johnstoniP00
    |         |--C. ornatum Karsch 1885R52 [incl. C. variatum Pocock 1898P00]
    |         `--C. pallidum Pocock 1900P00
    |--AmmotrechidaeR54
    |    |  i. s.: *Happlodontus proterus Poinar & Santiago-Blay 1989H02
    |    |         Oltacola gomezi Roewer 1934AP02
    |    |         Procleobis patagonicus (Holmberg 1876)AP02
    |    |         NothopugaDW10
    |    `--AmmotrechinaeR54
    |         |--Ammotrechula schusterae Roewer 1954R54
    |         `--AmmotrechaR54
    |              |--A. limbataR54
    |              `--A. stolliR54
    `--GaleodidaeAP02
         |--AellopusS69
         |--RhaxS69
         `--Galeodes Olivier 1791BR05
              |--G. arabs Koch 1842S69
              |--G. araneoides (Pallas 1772)AP02 [=Phalangium araneoidesH02]
              |--G. barbarusT09
              |--G. brevipesS69
              |--G. fatalis [incl. G. vorax]S69
              |--G. orientalis Stoliczka 1869S69
              |--G. subulataW68
              `--G. variegataE66
Solifugae incertae sedis:
  Ammotrechella stimpsoniCS90
  Eremocosta gigasellaRS10
  Mossamedessa abnormisA99
  RhagodesP00
    |--R. anthracinus Pocock 1900P00
    |--R. melanusP00
    |--R. ornatusP00
    `--R. phillipsiiP00
  BlossiaP00
    |--B. setifera Pocock 1900P00
    `--B. spinosa Simon 1880P00
  GluviopsisP00
    |--G. atratus Pocock 1900P00
    |--G. balfouri [=Paracleobis balfouri]P00
    |--G. nigripalpis [=Paracleobis nigripalpis]P00
    `--G. rufescens (Pocock 1897) [=Blossia rufescens]P00
  Pseudocleobis Pocock 1900P00
    |--*P. andinusP00
    `--P. alticola Pocock 1900P00
  Oparbella fageiF91
Nomina nuda: Ceroma capense Purcell in Kraepelin 1899P00
             Ceroma sclateri Purcell in Kraepelin 1899P00

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AP02] Alberti, G., & A. V. Peretti. 2002. Fine structure of male genital system and sperm in Solifugae does not support a sister-group relationship with Pseudoscorpiones (Arachnida). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 268–274.

[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (translated: 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[CS90] Corey, D. T., & I. J. Stout. 1990. Ground surface arachnids in sandhill communities of Florida. Journal of Arachnology 18: 167–172.

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222–241.

[E66] Evans, H. E. 1966. The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F91] Fain, A. 1991. Notes on mites parasitic or phoretic on Australian centipedes, spiders and scorpion. Records of the Western Australian Museum 15: 69–82.

[GE02] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe, W. C. Wheeler & C. Babbitt. 2002. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data. Cladistics 18: 5–70.

[H02] Harvey, M. S. 2002. The neglected cousins: what do we know about the smaller arachnid orders? Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 357–372.

[KBT11] Klann, A. E., T. L. Bird & G. Talarico. 2011. Ultrastructural characterization of Hexisopus psammophilus (Arachnida: Solifugae: Hexisopodidae) spermatozoa in comparison to other solifuge spermatozoal traits. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 280–286.

[P00] Pocock, R. I. 1900. Some new or little-known Thelyphonidae and Solifugae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 294–306.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079–1083.

[R52] Roewer, C. F. 1952. Opilioniden and Solifugen aus Ost-Afrika. Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Uebersee-Museum in Bremen, Reihe A 2: 87–89.

[R54] Roewer, C. F. 1954. Spinnentiere aus El Salvador, I. (Arachnoidea: Pedipalpi, Solifuga, Opiliones-Laniatores). Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 57–73.

[S69] Stoliczka, F. 1869. Contribution to the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 38 pt 2 (4): 201–251, pls 18–20.

[T09] Taylor, C. K. 2009. Australiscutum, a new genus of Monoscutidae (Arachnida: Opiliones) from eastern Australia, with the first record of asymmetrical chelicerae in Opiliones. Insect Systematics and Evolution 40: 319–332.

[W68] Wood, H. C., Jr. 1868. On the Phalangeae of the United States of America. Communications of the Essex Institute 6: 10–40.

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