Sorex

 Pygmy shrew Sorex minutus, photographed by Pavluvčík.

Belongs within: Soricinae.

Sorex, the long-tailed shrews, is a genus found in most of the temperate and Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, predominately in moist habitats (Nowak 1999). The common shrew S. araneus is widespread in northern Europe and northwestern Asia. It is larger with a relatively shorter tail than the widely sympatric pygmy shrew S. minutus.

Characters (from Nowak 1999): Head and body length 46-100 mm, tail length 25-82 mm, adult weight 2.1-18.0 g. Tail a third to more than half of total length, hairy in the young, naked in old adults. Fur sleek; pelage uni-, bi- or tricoloured, colours varying from tan to black. Body slender; snout long, slender, highly movable, with conspicuous vibrissae. Eyes minute but visible; ears usually projecting slightly above pelage. Five upper unicuspid teeth present, with tips coloured brownish to purplish. Females with three or four pairs of mammae.

Sorex Linnaeus 1758P04 (see below for synonymy)
|--+--S. alpinusFS15
| `--+--+--S. cylindricaudaFS15
| | `--+--S. bedfordiaeFS15
| | `--S. excelsusFS15
| `--+--S. mirabilisFS15
| `--+--+--S. raddeiFS15
| | `--+--S. roboratusFS15
| | `--+--S. samniticusFS15
| | `--+--+--+--S. arcticusFS15
| | | | | |--S. a. arcticusB75
| | | | | `--S. a. laricorum Jackson 1925B75
| | | | `--S. maritimensisFS15
| | | `--+--S. asperFS15
| | | `--S. tundrensisFS15
| | `--+--S. daphaenodonFS15
| | `--+--S. coronatusFS15
| | `--+--S. granariusFS15
| | `--+--S. araneus Linnaeus 1758FS15, L58 [incl. S. vulgarisE38]
| | | |--S. a. araneusFK55
| | | `--S. a. tetragonurus Hermann 1780FK55
| | `--+--S. satuniniFS15
| | `--+--S. antinoriiFS15
| | `--S. arunchiFS15
| `--+--S. gracillimusFS15 [=S. minutissimus gracillimusI92]
| `--+--+--+--S. shintoFS15
| | | `--+--S. caecutiensFS15
| | | `--S. cansulusFS15
| | `--+--+--S. isodonFS15
| | | `--S. sinalisFS15
| | `--+--S. milleriFS15
| | `--S. unguiculatusFS15
| `--+--+--S. yukonicusFS15
| | `--+--S. hosonoi Imaizumi 1954FS15, I92
| | | |--S. h. hosonoiI92
| | | `--S. h. shiroumanus Imaizumi 1954I92
| | `--S. minutissimusFS15
| | |--S. m. minutissimusI92
| | `--S. m. hawkeri Thomas 1906I92
| `--+--S. minutus Linnaeus 1766FS15, KJ08
| `--+--S. volnuchiniFS15
| `--+--S. kozloviFS15
| `--+--S. thibetanusFS15
| `--+--S. ventralisFS15 [=S. oreopolus ventralisG69]
| `--+--S. buchariensisFS15
| `--S. planicepsFS15
`--+--+--+--S. arizonaeFS15
| | `--+--S. merriamiFS15
| | `--S. trowbridgiiFS15
| `--+--+--S. stizodonFS15
| | `--S. veraecrucisFS15 [=S. saussurei veraecrucisG69]
| `--+--S. mediopupaFS15
| `--+--S. saussureiFS15
| | |--S. s. saussureiG69
| | `--S. s. oaxacaeG69
| `--+--S. ixtlanensisFS15
| `--S. veraepacisFS15
| |--S. v. veraepacisG69
| `--S. v. mutabilisG69
`--+--+--S. disparFS15
| `--S. emarginatus Jackson 1925FS15, MB86
`--+--+--+--S. fumeusFS15
| | `--+--S. macrodonFS15
| | `--S. tenellusFS15
| `--+--+--S. ornatusFS15
| | `--S. vagransFS15
| `--+--+--S. monticolusFS15
| | `--S. neomexicanusFS15
| `--+--S. sonomaeFS15
| `--+--+--S. alaskanusFS15
| | `--+--S. palustrisFS15
| | | |--S. p. palustrisB75
| | | `--S. p. hygrobadistes Jackson 1926B75
| | `--S. sclateriFS15
| `--+--S. bendiriiFS15
| `--+--S. pacificusFS15
| `--+--S. bairdiiFS15
| `--S. leucogasterFS15
`--+--+--S. hoyi (Baird 1858)FS15, B75 [=Microsorex hoyiB75; incl. M. winnemanaBP87]
| `--S. rohweriFS15
`--+--+--S. cinereusFS15
| | |--S. c. cinereusB75
| | `--S. c. leseuriiB75
| `--+--S. longirostrisFS15
| | |--S. l. longirostrisBP87
| | `--S. l. fischeriBP87
| `--+--S. oreopolusFS15
| `--S. orizabaeFS15
`--+--S. camtschaticaFS15
`--+--+--S. jacksoniFS15
| `--S. nanusFS15
`--+--+--S. portenkoiFS15
| `--S. ugyunakFS15
`--+--+--S. haydeni Baird 1858FS15, B75 [=S. cinereus haydeniB75]
| `--S. prebleiFS15
`--+--S. lyelliFS15
`--S. pribilofensisFS15

Sorex incertae sedis:
S. aquaticus Linnaeus 1758L58
S. constrictusJ23
S. crassicaudatusT66
S. cristatus Linnaeus 1758L58
S. exilisJ23
S. gaspensisBP87
S. juncensisBP87
S. nigerJ23
S. pygmaeusT66
S. sadonis Yoshiyuki & Imaizumi 1986I92
S. sinuosusBP87
S. sylvaticusCM07
‘Corsira’ temlyasG43
S. trigonirostrisBP87
‘Corsira’ tropicalisG43
S. variusF42

Inorganic: Sorex minutissimus minilorientalus Okamura 1987O87
Sorex minutissimus protominilorientalus Okamura 1987O87

Sorex Linnaeus 1758P04 [incl. Atophyrax Merriam 1884V67, Corsira Gray 1838V67, Homalurus Schulze 1890V67, Hydrogale Pomel 1848 non Kaup 1829V67, Musaraneus Brisson 1762V67, Neosorex Baird 1858V67, Otisorex De Kay 1842V67, Oxyrhin Kaup 1829V67, Soricidus Altobello 1927V67]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[E38] Ewing, H. E. 1938. North American mites of the subfamily Myobiinae, new subfamily (Arachnida). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (7): 180–197.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[FK55] Felten, H., & C. König. 1955. Einige Säugetiere aus dem Zentralmassiv, Südfrankreich. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 267–269.

[F42] Fraser, L. 1842. Exhibition of a specimen of the Galago senegalensis and description of a new species of shrew from Fernando Po. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 200–201.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[G43] Gray, J. E. 1843. Specimens of Mammalia from Coban in Central America. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 79.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[KJ08] Krämer, M. & M. Jentzsch. 2008. Kleinsäuger-Vorkommen aus dem Raum Zeitz—eine vergleichende Studie. Mauritiana 20 (2): 411–427.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MB86] Matson, J. O., & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403–491.

[T66] Tristram, H. B. 1866. Report on the mammals of Palestine. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 84–93.

[V67] Van Valen, L. 1967. New Paleocene insectivores and insectivore classification. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 135 (5): 217–284.

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