Sparassidae

Eusparassus dufouri, copyright Luis Nunes Alberto.

Belongs within: Dionycha.
Contains: Olios, Sparassinae, Deleninae, Heteropoda, PseudopodaYiinthi, Eusparassinae, Thelcticopis.

The Sparassidae, huntsman spiders, are a primarily tropical and subtropical group of sometimes large laterigrade spiders. Female sparassids possess a claw on the end of each palp (absent in the males); in members of the subfamily Heteropodinae, this claw bears long, curved ventral teeth that are shorter and/or uncurved in members of others subfamilies. Members of the subfamily Sparianthinae have the posterior teeth on the chelicerae distinctly smaller than the anterior teeth whereas members of other subfamilies have the anterior and posterior teeth similar in size (Jäger & Kunz 2005).

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Medium-sized to very large; eight eyes present in two rows; cheliceral margins with rows of teeth; legs laterigrade, with two tarsal claws, soft trilobate membranes at apex of metatarsi; ecribellate; entelegyne.

<==Sparassidae [Eusparassidae, Heteropodidae, Heteropodoidae, Sparassides]R14
    |--+--Heteropodinae [Heteropodeae]J08
    |  |    |--HeteropodaR14
    |  |    |--PseudopodaJ08
    |  |    |--YiinthiJ08
    |  |    |--SinopodaJ08
    |  |    |--BhutaniellaJ08
    |  |    |--MartensopodaJ08
    |  |    |--Pandercetes Koch 1875D94, PVD10
    |  |    |    |--P. isopusS10
    |  |    |    `--P. peronianus (Walckenaer 1837)PVD10
    |  |    `--KeiliraD94
    |  `--+--Polybetes Simon 1896R14, JR08
    |     |    `--P. pythagoricusR14
    |     `--EusparassinaeR14
    `--SparianthinaeR14
         |--ThelcticopisJ05
         |--Pseudosparianthis Simon 1887J05
         |--Sparianthis Simon 1880J05
         |--Pleorotus Simon 1898J05
         |    `--*P. braueri Simon 1898JK05
         |--Rhacocnemis Simon 1897J05
         |    `--*R. guttatus (Blackwall 1877)JK05
         |--Stipax Simon 1898J05
         |    `--*S. triangulifer Simon 1898JK05
         |--Thomasettia Hirst 1911J05
         |    `--*T. seychellana Hirst 1911JK05
         `--Stasina Simon 1877JK05
              |--*S. vittata Simon 1877JK05
              |--S. americanaK92
              |--S. manicata Simon 1897JK05
              |--S. nalandica Karsch 1892K92
              `--S. paripes [=Themeropis paripes]K92
Sparassidae incertae sedis:
  OliosJR08
  Leucorchestris Lawrence 1962NHJ08
    |--*L. arenicola Lawrence 1962 [incl. L. kochi Lawrence 1965]NHJ08
    |--L. alexandrina Lawrence 1966NHJ08
    |--L. sabulosa Lawrence 1966NHJ08
    |--L. setifrons Lawrence 1966NHJ08
    `--L. steyni Lawrence 1965NHJ08
  Palystella Lawrence 1928JK05
    |--*P. sexmaculatusJK05
    |--‘Olios’ isongonis Strand 1915J98
    |--P. namaquensis Lawrence 1938JK05
    `--P. pallida Lawrence 1938JK05
  Eodelena melanochelis (Strand 1913) [=Zachria melanochelis]J98
  Midamus Sim. 1880T94
    `--M. lutescens Thorell 1894T94
  Origes Simon 1897JR08
    |--*O. pollens Simon 1897JR08
    |--O. chloroticus Mello-Leitão 1945JR08
    `--O. nigrovittatus (Keyserling 1880) [=Sparassus nigrovittatus, Olios nigrovittatus]JR08
  Prusias Pickard-Cambridge 1892 [incl. Ramnes Pickard-Cambridge 1892]JR08
    |--*P. nugalis Pickard-Cambridge 1892JR08
    |--P. brasiliensis Mello-Leitão 1915JR08
    |--P. lanceolatus Simon 1897JR08
    `--P. semotus (Pickard-Cambridge 1892) [=*Ramnes semotus, Heteropoda simoni Bonnet 1957 (n. n.)]JR08
  Tibellomma Simon 1903JR08
    `--*T. chazaliae (Simon 1898) [=Prusias chazaliae]JR08
  Paenula Simon 1897JR08
    `--*P. paupercula Simon 1897JR08
  Adcatomus Karsch 1880JR08
  Chrosioderma Simon 1897JR08
    |--*C. albidum Simon 1897JK05
    `--C. ranomafana Silva-Dávila 2005JK05
  Dermochrosia Mello-Leitão 1940JR08
  Sparianthina Banks 1929JR08
    `--S. selenopoides Banks 1929JR08
  Remmius Simon 1897JR08
    |--*R. vultuosus Strand 1907JK05
    `--R. badius Roewer 1961JK05
  Quemedice Mello-Leitão 1942JR08
    |--Q. enigmaticus Mello-Leitão 1942FM11
    `--Q. piracuruca Rheims, Labarque & Ramírez 2008FM11
  Anaptomecus Simon 1903JR08
  Arandisa Lawrence 1938JK05
    `--*A. deserticola Lawrence 1938JK05
  Staianus Simon 1889JK05
    `--*S. acuminatus Simon 1889JK05
  Carparachne Lawrence 1962JK05
    |--*C. alba Lawrence 1962JK05
    `--C. aureoflava Lawrence 1966JK05
  Cebrennus Simon 1880JK05
    |--*C. wagaeJK05
    `--C. aethiopicus Simon 1880JK05
  Parapalystes Croeser 1996JK05
    |--*P. euphorbiae Croeser 1996JK05
    |--P. cultrifer (Pocock 1900)JK05
    |--P. lycosinus (Pocock 1900)JK05
    `--P. whiteae (Pocock 1902)JK05
  Anchonastus Simon 1898JK05
    |--*A. caudatus Simon 1898JK05
    `--A. plumosus (Pocock 1899)JK05
  Barylestis Simon 1910JK05
    |--*B. blaiseiJK05
    |--B. fagei (Lessert 1929) [=Torania fagei]JK05
    |--B. montandoni Lessert 1929 [=Torania montandoni]JK05
    |--B. occidentalis (Simon 1887) [=Torania occidentalis]JK05
    |--B. scutatus (Pocock 1903) [=Torania scutata]JK05
    `--B. variatus (Pocock 1899) [=Torania variata]JK05
  Berlandia Lessert 1921JK05
    |--*B. longipes Lessert 1921JK05
    `--B. tenebricola Simon & Fage 1922JK05
  Cerbalus Simon 1897JK05
    |--C. ergensisJK05
    `--C. pulcherrimus (Simon 1880) [incl. C. angustifrons Denis 1960, C. sahariensis Jézéquel & Junqua 1966]JK05
  Damastes Simon 1880JK05
    `--*D. grandidieriJK05
  Gnathopalystes Rainbow 1899JK05
    `--*G. feroxJK05
  Megaloremmius Simon 1903JK05
    `--*M. leo Simon 1903JK05
  Microrchestris Lawrence 1962JK05
    |--*M. melanogaster Lawrence 1962JK05
    `--M. scutatus Lawrence 1966JK05
  Nisueta Simon 1880JK05
    |--*N. quadrispilota Simon 1880JK05
    `--N. kolosvaryi Caporiacco 1947JK05
  Nonianus Simon 1885JK05
    |--*N. pictusJK05
    `--N. unilateralis Strand 1908J98
  Orchestrella Lawrence 1965JK05
    `--*O. longipesJK05
  Panaretella Lawrence 1937JK05
    |--*P. distincta (Pocock 1896)JK05
    |--P. immaculata Lawrence 1952JK05
    |--P. minor Lawrence 1952JK05
    |--P. scutata (Pocock 1902)JK05
    `--P. zuluana Lawrence 1937JK05
  Pseudomicrommata Järvi 1914JK05
    `--*P. longipes (Bösenberg & Strand 1895)JK05
  Sarotesius Pocock 1898JK05
    `--*S. melanognathus Pocock 1898JK05
  RhitymnaJK05
    |--R. hildebrandti Järvi 1914JK05
    `--R. saccata Järvi 1912JK05
  Stasinoides Berland 1922JK05
    `--*S. aethiopica Berland 1922JK05
  Irileka iridescens Hirst 1998T13
  AdulatrixS93
    |--A. decumana (Koch & Berendt 1854)S93
    |--A. fusca Petrunkevitch 1942S93
    |--A. parva Petrunkevitch 1942S93
    `--A. rufa Petrunkevitch 1942S93
  CaduceatorS93
    |--C. minutus Petrunkevitch 1942S93
    `--C. quadrimaculatus Petrunkevitch 1942S93
  Collacteus captivus Petrunkevitch 1942S93
  Eostaianus succini Petrunkevitch 1942S93
  Eostasina aculeata Petrunkevitch 1942S93
  Eoprychia succini Petrunkevitch 1958S93
  SparassinaeRJ08
  DeleninaeJ05
  Veterator extinctus Petrunkevitch 1963P92
  TentabunaP92

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[D94] Davies, V. T. 1994. The huntsman spiders Heteropoda Latreille and Yiinthi gen. nov. (Araneae: Heteropodidae) in Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 35 (1): 75–122.

[FM11] Freire-Jr, G. de B., & P. C. Motta. 2011. Effects of experimental fire regimes on the abundance and diversity of cursorial arachnids of Brazilian savannah (cerrado biome). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 263–272.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[J05] Jäger, P. 2005. Seramba Thorell 1887 is a synonym of Thelcticopis Karsch 1884 (Arachnida, Araneae, Sparassidae, Sparianthinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 57–59.

[J08] Jäger, P. 2008. Revision of the huntsman spider genus Heteropoda Latreille 1804: species with exceptional male palpal conformations from southeast Asia and Australia (Arachnida, Araneae, Sparassidae, Heteropodinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 239–310.

[JK05] Jäger, P., & D. Kunz. 2005. An illustrated key to genera of African huntsman spiders (Arachnida, Araneae, Sparassidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 163–213.

[JR08] Jäger, P., & C. A. Rheims. 2008. On the genera Origes Simon 1897, Prusias O. Pickard-Cambridge 1892, Tibelloma Simon 1903 and Paenula Simon 1897 from South and Central America (Arachnida, Araneae, Sparassidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 29–39.

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[NHJ08] Nørgaard, T., J. R. Henschel & P. Jäger. 2008. Nomenclatural mating: Leucorchestis kochi Lawrence 1965 is a synonym of Leucorchestis arenicola Lawrence 1962 (Arachnida, Araneae, Sparassidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 41–44.

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[RJ08] Rheims, C. A., & P. Jäger. 2008. Revision of the Neotropical huntsman spider genus Vindullus Simon (Araneae, Sparassidae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 221–231.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S10] Strand, E. 1910. Spinnentiere aus Neuguinea (Opiliones, Psechridae und Clubionidae) gesammelt von Dr. Schlaginhaufen. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Königl. Zoologischen und Anthropologisch-Ethnographischen Museums zu Dresden 13 (5): 1–16.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt 4 (4): 1–63.

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