Thirteen-lined ground squirrel Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, photographed by Mnmazur.

Belongs within: Marmotini.

Spermophilus, the ground squirrels, has been recognised as a genus of about forty species found in northern Eurasia and North America. However, the genus in this sense may be paraphyletic to other genera in the Marmotini, and recent authors have restricted it to a group of western Eurasian species.

<==Spermophilus Cuvier 1825P04
    |  i. s.: S. craginiMH03
    |         S. meadensis (Hibbard 1941) [=Citellus meadensis]MH03
    |         S. mongolicus Milne-Edwards 1867M01
    |         S. nogaici (Topachevski 1957) [=Urocitellus nogaici]P04
    |--+--S. adocetusFS15
    |  `--S. annulatusFS15
    `--+--+--+--S. musicusFS15
       |  |  `--+--S. majorFS15
       |  |     `--S. pygmaeusFS15
       |  `--+--S. dauricusFS15
       |     `--+--+--S. suslicusFS15
       |        |  `--+--S. xanthoprymnusFS15
       |        |     `--+--S. citellusFS15
       |        |        `--S. taurensisFS15
       |        `--+--+--S. erythrogenysFS15
       |           |  `--S. fulvusFS15
       |           `--+--S. brevicaudaFS15
       |              `--+--S. relictusFS15
       |                 `--+--S. ralliFS15
       |                    `--+--S. alashanicusFS15
       |                       `--S. pallidicaudaFS15
       `--+--+--S. (Ictidomys)HGP74
          |  |    |--S. (I.) mexicanus (Erxleben 1777)HGP74, FS15, MB86
          |  |    |    |--S. m. mexicanusMB86
          |  |    |    `--S. m. parvidens Mearns 1896MB86
          |  |    `--S. (I.) tridecemlineatus (Mitchill 1821)HGP74, B75 [=Sciurus tridecemlineatusB75]
          |  `--+--S. franklinii (Sabine 1822)FS15, B75 [=Arctomys frankliniiB75]
          |     `--+--+--S. mohavensisFS15
          |        |  `--S. tereticaudusFS15
          |        |       |--S. t. tereticaudusL72
          |        |       `--S. t. neglectusL72
          |        `--+--S. perotensisFS15
          |           `--S. spilosoma Bennett 1833FS15, MB86
          |                |--S. s. spilosomaMB86
          |                `--S. s. pallescens (Howell 1928)MB86
          `--+--S. beldingiFS15
             |    |--S. b. beldingiRH75
             |    |--S. b. creberRH75
             |    `--S. b. oregonusRH75
             `--+--+--+--S. townsendiiFS15
                |  |  `--S. washingtoniFS15
                |  `--+--S. brunneusFS15
                |     `--+--S. canusFS15
                |        `--S. mollisFS15
                `--+--S. armatusFS15
                   `--+--S. columbianusFS15
                      |    |--S. c. columbianusRH75
                      |    `--S. c. ruficaudusRH75
                      `--+--S. undulatusFS15
                         |    |--S. u. undulatusRH75
                         |    |--S. u. eversmanni Brandt 1841RH75, M01
                         |    `--S. u. stramineusRH75
                         `--+--S. parryiiFS15
                            |    |--S. p. parryiiRH75
                            |    |--S. p. janensisRH75
                            |    |--S. p. kennicottiiRH75
                            |    `--S. p. leucostictusRH75
                            `--+--S. elegansFS15
                               |    |--S. e. elegans [=S. richardsonii elegans]RH75
                               |    |--S. e. aureus [=S. richardsonii aureus]RH75
                               |    `--S. e. nevadensis [=S. richardsonii nevadensis]RH75
                               `--S. (Spermophilus) richardsoniiHGP74, FS15

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[GB68] Gerber, J. D., & E. C. Birney. 1968. Immunological comparisons of four subgenera of ground squirrels. Systematic Zoology 17 (4): 413–416.

[HGP74] Hight, M. E., M. Goodman & W. Prychodko. 1974. Immunological studies of the Sciuridae. Systematic Zoology 23 (1): 12–25.

[L72] Lang, J. D. 1972. Notes on the feeding habits of Haemolaelaps glasgowi (Acarina: Laelaptidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (3): 203.

[MH03] Martin, R. A., R. T. Hurt, J. G. Honey & P. Peláez-Campomanes. 2003. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene rodents fom the northern Borchers Badlands (Meade County, Kansas), with comments on the Blancan-Irvingtonian boundary in the Meade Basin. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 985–1001.

[MB86] Matson, J. O., & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[M01] Méhely, L. 1901. Emlősök [Säugethiere]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 1–19. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403–491.

[RH75] Robinson, J. W., & R. S. Hoffmann. 1975. Geographical and interspecific cranial variation in big-eared ground squirrels (Spermophilus): a multivariate study. Systematic Zoology 24 (1): 79–88.

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