Sphaerellata

Triactoma blakei, from Afanasieva et al. (2005).

Belongs within: Entactiniidae.

The Sphaerellata are a group of radiolarians known from the Triassic to the present, characterised by porous external and internal shells and one to ten main spines (that are three-bladed, rod-like, cylindrical, or hollow). The inner frame is not known (Afanasieva et al. 2005).

<==SphaerellataAA05
    |--PantanelliidaeAA05
    |    |--CapnuchosphaerinaeAA05
    |    |    |--Weverella Kozur & Mostler 1979AA05
    |    |    |--Capnuchosphaera De Wever 1979AA05
    |    |    |    `--C. lea De Wever 1979AA05
    |    |    `--Spongopallium Dumitrica, Kozur & Mostler 1980AA05
    |    |         `--S. tubulispinaAA05
    |    |--CapnodocinaeAA05
    |    |    |--Justium Blome 1983AA05
    |    |    |--Loffa Pessagno 1979AA05
    |    |    |--Renzium Blome 1983AA05
    |    |    `--Capnodoce De Wever in De Wever et al. 1979AA05
    |    |         `--C. kochiAA05
    |    `--PantanelliinaeAA05
    |         |--Pantanellium Pessagno 1977 [incl. Meyenella Davis 1950 (nom. inv.)]AA05
    |         |--Betraccium Pessagno 1979AA05
    |         |--Cantalum Pessagno 1979AA05
    |         |--Cecrops Pessagno 1977AA05
    |         |--Gorgansium Pessagno & Blome 1980AA05
    |         |--Pachyonchus Pessagno & Blome 1980AA05
    |         |--Pseudopantanellium Yeh 1987AA05
    |         |--Trillus Pessagno & Blome 1980AA05
    |         `--Zartus Pessagno & Blome 1980AA05
    `--+--ParvivaccidaeAA05
       |    |--LeugeoninaeAA05
       |    |    |--Leugeo Yang & Wang 1990AA05
       |    |    |--Hexasphaera Hull 1997 nec Clarke & Verdier 1967 (ICBN) nec Keupp 1987 (ICBN)AA05
       |    |    `--Levileugeo Yang & Wang 1990AA05
       |    |         `--L. ordinariusAA05
       |    |--+--HeleninaeAA05
       |    |  |    |--‘Helena’ Hull 1997 non Risso 1826AA05
       |    |  |    `--Tappanella Hull 1997AA05
       |    |  `--ParvivaccinaeAA05
       |    |       |--Lanubus Pessagno & Yang 1989AA05
       |    |       |--Parvivacca Pessagno & Yang 1989AA05
       |    |       `--Dicroa Foreman 1975AA05
       |    |            `--D. periosaAA05
       |    `--AcaeniotylinaeAA05
       |         |--Acaeniotylopsis Kito & De Wever 1994AA05
       |         |--Acastea Yang 1993AA05
       |         |--Acusten Yang 1993AA05
       |         |--Nolita Hull 1997AA05
       |         |--Novitripus Hull 1997AA05
       |         |--Praeconosphaera Yang 1993AA05
       |         `--Acaeniotyle Foreman 1973AA05
       |              |--A. diaphorogonaBL79
       |              `--A. umbilicataBL79
       `--XiphostylidaeAA05
            |--XiphostylinaeAA05
            |    |--Archaeocenosphaera Pessagno & Yang in Pessagno et al. 1989AA05
            |    |--Suna Wu 1986 [incl. Neotripocyclia Pessagno & Yang in Pessagno, Six & Yang 1989]AA05
            |    |--Tripocyclia Haeckel 1881AA05
            |    |--Xiphostylus Haeckel 1881AA05
            |    |--Zanola Pessagno & Yang in Pessagno et al. 1989AA05
            |    `--Triactoma Rüst 1885AA05 [=Triactis Haeckel 1881 non Klunzinger 1877LT61; incl. Triactiscus Haeckel 1887LT61]
            |         |--*T. tithonianum Rüst 1885 [=*Triactis tithoniana]LT61
            |         |--T. blakeiAA05
            |         |--T. ilsedense Rüst 1885LT61
            |         |--T. pachyacantha Rüst 1885LT61
            |         |--‘Haliomma’ triactis Ehrenberg 1875 [incl. Triactiscus tripodiscus]LT61
            |         |--‘Triactiscus’ tricuspis Haeckel 1887LT61
            |         `--*Triactiscus’ tripyramis Haeckel 1887LT61
            `--+--EntapiinaeAA05
               |    |--Zealithapium O’Connor 1999AA05
               |    `--Entapium Sanfilippo & Riedel 1973AA05
               |         `--E. chaenapiumAA05
               `--StylosphaerinaeAA05
                    |--Lithomespilus Haeckel 1887AA05
                    |--Praestylosphaera Empson-Morin 1981AA05
                    |--Protoxiphotractus Pessagno 1973AA05
                    |--Spongatractus Haeckel 1887AA05
                    |--Stylosphaera Ehrenberg 1847AA05
                    |--Xiphatractus Haeckel 1887AA05
                    |--Druppatractus Haeckel 1887AA05
                    |    `--D. variabilisAA05
                    `--Stylatractus Haeckel 1887AA05
                         `--S. universusP98

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AA05] Afanasieva, M. S., E. O. Amon, Y. V. Agarkov & D. S. Boltovskoy. 2005. Radiolarians in the geological record. Paleontological Journal 39 (Suppl. 3): S135–S392.

[BL79] Basov, V. A., B. G. Lopatin, I. S. Gramberg, A. I. Danjushevskaya, V. Ya. Kaban’kov, V. M. Lazurkin & D. K. Patrunov. 1979. Lower Cretaceous lithostratigraphy near Galicia Bank. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 47: 683–717.

[LT61] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1961. Remarks on the systematics of the Sarkodina (Protozoa), renamed homonyms and new and validated genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 213–234.

[P98] Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

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