Dynamene bidentata, copyright David Fenwick.

Belongs within: Sphaeromatidea.
Contains: Monolistrini.

The Sphaeromatidae are a group of marine isopods capable of rolling into a compact ball (Menzies & Kruczynski 1983). Most species exhibit strong sexual dimorphism with males being more heavily sculpted than females. They have been divided into subfamilies based on the structure of pleopods 4 and 5, with Dynameninae and Sphaeromatinae having thickened folds and ridges on the pleopods that are absent in Cassidininae, but the monophyly of these taxa is uncertain.

Characters (from Menzies & Kruczynski 1983, as Sphaeromidae): First pleonite distinct; second to fifth fused, forming vault with pleotelson containing pleopods. Males with uropodal endopod fused to peduncle; exopod movable.

<==Sphaeromatidae [Sphaeromidae]
    |    |  i. s.: Cassidina Milne Edwards 1840BP03
    |    |           `--C. typa Milne Edwards 1840BP03
    |    |         Cassidinidea Hansen 1905BP03
    |    |           |--C. korpie Bruce 1993BP03
    |    |           |--C. lunifrons (Richardson 1900)MK83
    |    |           `--C. ovalis (Say 1818)MK83
    |    |         Paraleptosphaeroma Buss & Iverson 1981BP03
    |    |           |--P. brucei Kussakin & Malyutina 1993BP03
    |    |           `--P. indica Müller 1990BP03
    |    `--MonolistriniS86
    `--+--Dynamene Leach 1814 [Dynameninae]BP03
       |    |--D. bidentataB78
       |    |--D. bifidaPP64
       |    |--D. curalii Holdich & Harrison 1980BP03
       |    |--D. dilatataH47
       |    |--D. edwardsiBBB-S95
       |    |--D. glabraH47
       |    `--D. sheareri Hatch 1947H47
       `--Sphaeroma Bosc 1802 [Sphaeromatinae]BP03
            |--*S. serratum (Fabricius 1787)MK83, BP03 [=Oniscus serratusMK83, Talitrus serratusL02]
            |--S. cinereaG20
            |--S. globator [=Oniscus globator]L02
            |--S. hookeriPP64
            |--S. lesueuriR26
            |--S. quadridentata Say 1818 [=S. quadridentatum]MK83
            |--S. quoianum Milne Edwards 1840BP03
            |--S. rugicaudaD01
            |--S. terebrans Bate 1866 [incl. S. destructor Richardson 1897]MK83
            `--S. walkeri Stebbing 1904MK83
Sphaeromatidae incertae sedis:
  Thermosphaeroma thermophilumS86, F01
    |--E. alba Menzies & Glynn 1968MK83
    |--E. amplicauda (Stimpson 1857)BP03
    |--E. chilensisHS01
    |--E. crenulata (Richardson 1902)MK83
    |--E. diminuta Menzies & Frankenberg 1966MK83
    |--E. gigasBP03
    |--E. obtusum (Dana 1853)FZA07
    |--E. oregonensisH47
    `--E. productatelson Menzies & Glynn 1968MK83
  Cymodoce Leach 1814MK83
    |--*C. truncata Leach 1814MK83
    |--C. faxoni (Richardson 1905) (see below for synonymy)MK83
    |--C. japonicaH47
    `--C. rubropunctataPP64
  Paradynemene benjamensis Richardson 1905MK83
  Geocerceis barbarae Menzies & Glynn 1968MK83
  Cerceis carinata Glynn 1970MK83
  Discerceis linguicauda (Richardson 1901)MK83
  Paracerceis Hansen 1905MK83
    |--*P. caudata (Say 1818) (see below for synonymy)MK83
    |--P. edithae Boone 1930MK83
    |--P. nuttingi (Boone 1921)MK83
    `--P. sculpta (Holmes 1904)HJ08
    |--D. acutitelson Menzies & Glynn 1968MK83
    |--D. angulata (Richardson 1901)MK83
    |--D. barnardi Menzies & Glynn 1968MK83
    |--D. dianae (Menzies 1962)MK83
    |--D. perforata (Moore 1902) [incl. D. moorei Richardson 1905]MK83
    |--D. plicatura Glynn 1970MK83
    |--D. quadripunctata Menzies & Glynn 1968MK83
    `--D. tumidicauda Glynn 1970MK83
  Dies barnardi Carvacho 1977MK83
  Paradella dianae (Menzies 1962)HJ08
  Lekanesphaera teissieri (Bocquet & Lejuez 1967)BP03
  Zuzara venosaBP03
  Isopodites triasinus (Picard 1858)BWW93
  Eusphaeroma crenulatumBRW98
  Dynamenopsis dianaeBRW98

Cymodoce faxoni (Richardson 1905) [=Exosphaeroma faxoni; incl. E. antillense Richardson 1912, E. barrerae Boone 1918]MK83

*Paracerceis caudata (Say 1818) [=Naesa caudata, Ciliceae caudata, Cymodocea caudata; incl. Cy. bermudensis Ives 1892, Dynamene bermudensis, Paracerceis tomentosa Schultz & McCloskey 1967, Exosphaeroma yucatanum Richardson 1905]MK83

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[BBB-S95] Boubezari, K., G. Bitar & D. Bellan-Santini. 1995. Structure et organisation de trois moulières (Mytilus galloprovincialis et Perna perna) de la région d’Alger. Mésogée 54: 63–72.

[BP03] Brandt, A., & G. C. B. Poore. 2003. Higher classification of the flabelliferan and related Isopoda based on a reappraisal of relationships. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 893–923.

[BWW93] Briggs, D. E. G., M. J. Weedon & M. A. Whyte. 1993. Arthropoda (Crustacea excluding Ostracoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 321–342. Chapman & Hall: London.

[B78] Brusca, R. C. 1978. Studies on the cymothoid fish symbionts of the eastern Pacific (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) II. Systematics and biology of Lironeca vulgaris Stimpson 1857. Occasional Papers of the Allan Hancock Foundation New Series 2: 1–19.

[D01] Dollfus, A. 1901. Isopodák [Isopodes]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 371–374. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[F01] Fashing, N. J. 2001. Morphological adaptations associated with mate-guarding behaviour in the genus Hericia (Acari: Algophagidae). In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 176–179. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[FZA07] Fiege, D., H. Zibrowius & P. M. Arnaud. 2007. New deep-water records of cocoons of undescribed species of Fecampiidae from Antarctica to the Bay of Biscay (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Rhabdocoela). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 1–6.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H47] Hatch, M. H. 1947. The Chelifera and Isopoda of Washington and adjacent regions. University of Washington Publications in Biology 10 (5): 155–274.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[MK83] Menzies, R. J., & W. L. Kruczynski. 1983. Isopod Crustacea (exclusive of Epicaridea). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 6 (1): 1–126.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[S86] Sket, B. 1986. Isopoda: Sphaeromatidae. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 423–427. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

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