Spiranthinae

Autumn lady’s tresses Spiranthes spiralis, copyright Umberto Ferrando.

Belongs within: Cranichideae.

The Spiranthinae are a mostly Neotropical group of terrestrial orchids, characterised by basal leaves, flowers with the margins of the labellum adherent to the sides of the column and pollinium tetrads differentiated into a body and stalk, and seeds with elevated transverse anticlinal cell walls and ridges on external periclinal walls (Salazar et al. 2002).

<==Spiranthinae [Spirantheae]
    |--SacoilaSCSA02
    |--MesadenellaSCSA02
    |--*Eltroplectris calcarataSCSA02
    |--Beloglottis costaricensisRG07
    |--Cyclopogon elatusRG07
    |--Hapalorchis lineatusRG07
    |--Lankesterella longicollisRG07
    |--Mesadenus polyanthusRG07
    |--Pelexia adnataRG07
    |--Pseudogoodyera wrightiiRG07
    |--Sarcoglottis acaulisRG07
    |--Schiedeella amesianaRG07
    |--Stenorrhynchos speciosumRG07
    |--BeadleaA86
    |--BuchtieniaA86
    |--CoccineorchisA86
    |--DeiregyneA86
    |--DiscyphusA86
    |--FunkiellaA86
    |--GamosepalumA86
    |--LyroglossaA86
    |--SauroglossumA86
    |--SynassaA86
    |--PteroglossaSCSA02
    |    |--P. roseoalba (Reichenb.) Salazar & Chase in Salazar, Chase & Soto Arenas 2002 (see below for synonymy)SCSA02
    |    `--P. travassosii (Rolfe) Salazar & Chase in Salazar, Chase & Soto Arenas 2002 (see below for synonymy)SCSA02
    |--EurystylesRG07
    |    |--E. alticolaRG07
    |    |--E. ananassocomosRG07
    |    `--E. domingensisRG07
    |--DichromanthusSCSA02
    |    |--*D. cinnabarinusSCSA02
    |    |--D. aurantiacus (Llave & Lex.) Salazar & Soto Arenas in Salazar, Chase & Soto Arenas 2002 (see below for synonymy)SCSA02
    |    `--D. michuacanus (Llave & Lex.) Salazar & Soto Arenas in Salazar, Chase & Soto Arenas 2002 (see below for synonymy)SCSA02
    `--Spiranthes Rich. 1817ME70
         |--*S. spiralisME70
         |--S. cernua [incl. Neottia gemmipara]C55
         |--S. diluvialisKIW98
         |--S. lacera [incl. S. gracilis]V72
         |--S. lucidaV72
         |--S. porrifoliaH93
         |--S. romanzoffianaH93
         |--S. sinensis (Pers.) Ames 1908 (see below for synonymy)ME70
         |    |--S. s. var. sinensisO88
         |    `--S. s. var. amoenaO88
         |--S. × steigeri [S. cernua × S. romanzoffiana]V72
         |--S. tuberosa [incl. S. grayi]V72
         `--S. vernalisRG07

Dichromanthus aurantiacus (Llave & Lex.) Salazar & Soto Arenas in Salazar, Chase & Soto Arenas 2002 [=Neottia aurantiaca Llave & Lex. 1825, Gyrostachys aurantiaca (Llave & Lex.) Kuntze 1891, Spiranthes aurantiaca (Llave & Lex.) Hemsley 1884, Stenorrhynchos aurantiacum (Llave & Lex.) Lindley 1840; incl. Sp. lanuginosa Richard & Gal. 1845, St. lanuginosus (Richard & Gal.) Schlechter 1918, St. lupulinum Lindley 1840, Gyrostachys lupulina (Lindley) Kuntze 1891, Spiranthes lupulina (Lindley) Hemsley in Godm. & Salvin 1885]SCSA02

Dichromanthus michuacanus (Llave & Lex.) Salazar & Soto Arenas in Salazar, Chase & Soto Arenas 2002 [=Neottia michuacana Llave & Lex. 1825, Gyrostachys michuacana (Llave & Lex.) Kuntze 1891, Schiedeella michuacana (Llave & Lex.) Burns-Bal. 1981, Spiranthes michuacana (Llave & Lex.) Hemsley 1884, Stenorrhynchos michuacanum (Llave & Lex.) Lindley 1840; incl. Sp. bracteolaris Kränzl 1915, St. madrensis Reichenb. 1855, Gyrostachys madrensis (Reichenb.) Kuntze 1891, Spiranthes madrensis (Reichenb.) Kuntze 1891, Neottia sulphurea Llave & Lex. 1825, Gyrostachys sulphurea (Llave & Lex.) Kuntze 1891, Spiranthes sulphurea (Llave & Lex.) Hemsley 1884, Stenorrhynchos sulphureum (Llave & Lex.) Lindley 1840, St. michuacanus var. vexillaris Szlach. 1994]SCSA02

Pteroglossa roseoalba (Reichenb.) Salazar & Chase in Salazar, Chase & Soto Arenas 2002 [=Pelexia roseoalba Reichenb. 1854, Centrogenium roseoalbum (Reichenb.) Schlechter 1919, Eltroplectris roseoalba (Reichenb.) Hamer & Garay 1974]SCSA02

Pteroglossa travassosii (Rolfe) Salazar & Chase in Salazar, Chase & Soto Arenas 2002 [=Pelexia travassosii Rolfe 1892, Eltroplectris travassosii (Rolfe) Garay 1982]SCSA02

Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames 1908 [=Neottia sinensis Pers. 1807; incl. N. australis Br. 1810, Spiranthes australis (Br.) Lindl. 1824, S. novae-zelandiae Hook. f. 1853]ME70

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A86] Atwood, J. T. 1986. The size of the Orchidaceae and the systematic distribution of epiphytic orchids. Selbyana 9: 171–186.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[KIW98] Kearns, C. A., D. W. Inouye & N. M. Waser. 1998. Endangered mutualisms: the conservation of plant-pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 83–112.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[RG07] Ramírez, S. R., B. Gravendeel, R. B. Singer, C. R. Marshall & N. E. Pierce. 2007. Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator. Nature 448: 1042–1045.

[SCSA02] Salazar, G. A., M. W. Chase & M. A. Soto Arenas. 2002. Galeottiellinae, a new subtribe and other nomenclatural changes in Spiranthinae (Orchidaceae: Cranichideae). Lindleyana 17 (3): 172–176.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

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