Spiriferida

 Posterior and dorsal views of Paeckelmanella dieneri, from Boucot et al. (1965).

Belongs within: Rhynchonellata.
Contains: Koninckinidae, Dayiidae, Anoplothecidae, Retzioidea, Athyrisinidae, Delthyrididae, Hysterolitidae, Mucrospiriferinae, Suessioidea, Syringothyrididae, Spiriferinidae, Cyrtioidea, Reticularioidea, Cyrtospiriferoidea, Brachythyrididae, Spiriferidae, Costispiriferidae, Spiriferella.

The Spiriferida were a lineage of brachiopods found from the Ordovician to the Jurassic (Prothero 1998). Many members of the spiriferidans in the Delthyridoidea and Spiriferidina possessed shells with broad lateral wings. The Delthyridoidea have a fimbriate growth fabric, with spinose projections on the margins of growth lamellae. In members of the Upper Silurian to Triassic Retziidina, the laterally directed spiralia are connected by medially directed crural loops (Boucot et al. 1965). The Verneuliidae are a unique family within the Spiriferida in possessing a shell morphology with opposed folding of the anterior shell margins, and lacking dental plates or adminicula, but were regarded by Sun et al. (2004) as derived within the Spiriferidina.

Characters (from Prothero 1998): Brachidia spiral. Shells usually highly biconvex; radial costae well developed; large interarea present on ventral valve.

<==Spiriferida
    |  i. s.: Clavigera Hector 1879 (see below for synonymy)BJ65
    |           |--*C. bisulcata Hector in Thomson 1913 [=*Hectoria bisulcata, *Hectorina bisulcata]BJ65
    |           |--C. cuneiformis [=Hectoria cuneiformis, Hectorina cuneiformis]F27
    |           `--C. tumidaBJ65
    |         OrthospiriferBS12
    |           |--O. iowensisMB12
    |           `--O. marceyi [=Spinocyrtia marceyi]BS12
    |--KoninckinidinaHB93
    |    |--KoninckinidaeHB93
    |    `--Cadomella Oehlert in Fischer 1887M-WW65 [Cadomellacea, Cadomellidae, Cadomellinae, CadomelloideaHB93]
    |         |--*C. moorei (Davidson 1876)M-WW65, HB93 [=Leptaena mooreiM-WW65]
    |         `--C. davidsoni (Eudes Deslongchamps 1854)HB93
    |--Dayioidea [Dayiacea, Dayiidina]HB93
    |    |--DayiidaeB75
    |    `--+--AnoplothecidaeB75
    |       `--Kayseria Davidson 1882B75, BJ65 [Kayseriidae]
    |            |--K. lens (Phillips 1841)HB93
    |            `--K. procera Ficner & Havlíček 1978HB93
    |--RetziidinaBJ65
    |    |--RetzioideaBJ65
    |    `--AthyrisinoideaHB93
    |         |--AthyrisinidaeBJ65
    |         `--MetathryrisinidaeHB93
    |              |--Metathyrisina merita Rong & Yang 1981HB93
    |              `--Molongia Mitchell 1921HB93, BJ65
    |                   `--*M. elegans Mitchell 1921BJ65
    |--Delthyridoidea [Delthyridina]RG04
    |    |--DelthyrididaeM03
    |    |--HysterolitidaeRG04
    |    `--MucrospiriferidaeRG04
    |         |  i. s.: Strophopleura Stainbrook 1947BJ65
    |         |           |--*S. notabilis (Kindle 1909) [=Spirifer notabilis]BJ65
    |         |           `--S. raymondiN79
    |         |         Pteroplecta laminatus Waterhouse 1978HB93
    |         `--MucrospiriferinaeRG04
    |--SpiriferinidinaHB93
    |    |--SuessioideaHB93
    |    |--SyringothyrididaeHB93
    |    `--SpiriferinoideaHB93
    |         |--SpiriferinidaeBJ65
    |         |--Sarganostega [Sarganostegidae]HB93
    |         |    |--S. pressa Cooper & Grant 1976HB93
    |         |    `--S. prisca Cooper & Grant 1976HB93
    |         |--XestotrematidaeHB93
    |         |    |--Xestotrema pulchrum (Meek 1860)HB93
    |         |    `--Arionthia lamaria Cooper & Grant 1976HB93
    |         |--Reticulariina Frederiks 1916BJ65 [ReticulariinidaeHB93]
    |         |    |--*R. spinosa (Norwood & Pratten 1855) [=Spirifer spinosus]BJ65
    |         |    |--R. hueconiana Cooper & Grant 1976HB93
    |         |    `--R. phoxa Cooper & Grant 1976HB93
    |         |--Crenispirifer Stehli 1954BJ65 [CrenispiriferidaeHB93]
    |         |    |--*C. angulatus (King 1930) [=Spiriferina angulata]BJ65
    |         |    |--C. jubatus Cooper & Grant 1976HB93
    |         |    `--C. sagus Cooper & Grant 1976HB93
    |         |--Paraspiriferina Reed 1944BJ65 [ParaspiriferinidaeHB93]
    |         |    |--*P. ghundiensis (Reed 1944) [=Spiriferina (*Paraspiriferina) ghundiensis]BJ65
    |         |    |--P. amoena Cooper & Grant 1976HB93
    |         |    `--P. setulosa Cooper & Grant 1976HB93
    |         `--Yangkongia [Yangkongidae]HB93
    |              |--Y. planofolda Xu & Liu 1983HB93
    |              |--Y. qieermaensis Xu & Liu 1983HB93
    |              `--Y. zhihemaensis Xu & Liu 1983HB93
    `--SpiriferidinaSB04
         |  i. s.: Verneuiliidae [Verneuilinae]SB04
         |           |--Minythyra Brunton 1984SB04
         |           |--Nuguschella Tjazheva 1960SB04
         |           |--Changshunella Sun, Baliński et al. 2004SB04
         |           |    `--*C. yangi Sun, Baliński et al. 2004SB04
         |           `--Verneuilia Hall & Clarke 1893SB04
         |                |--*V. cheiroptyx (d’Archiac & de Verneuil 1842) [=Spirifer cheiroptyx]BJ65
         |                |--V. langenstrasseniSB04
         |                `--V. oceaniSB04
         |--CyrtioideaBJ65
         |--ReticularioideaBJ65
         |--CyrtospiriferoideaBJ65
         |--BrachythyrididaeSB04
         |--PaeckelmanelloideaSB04
         |    |--VoiseyellaSB04
         |    `--Paeckelmanella Likharev 1934BJ65
         |         |--*P. dieneri (Chernyshev 1902) [=Spirifer dieneri]BJ65
         |         |--P. quadriplicataDX84
         |         `--P. teneicostata Termier 1975HB93
         `--SpiriferoideaHB93
              |  i. s.: Thomasaria Stainbrook 1945BJ65
              |           `--*T. altumbona Stainbrook 1945BJ65
              |--SpiriferidaeSB04
              |--CostispiriferidaeHB93
              |--SpiriferellaHB93
              `--Fimbrispirifer Cooper 1942BJ65 [FimbrispiriferidaeHB93, Fimbrispiriferinae]
                   |--*F. venustus (Hall 1860) [=Spirifer venustus]BJ65
                   |--F. charybdis (Barrande 1879)HB93
                   `--F. divaricatusN79

Clavigera Hector 1879 [=Clavigerina (l. c.) non v. Martens 1903, Hectoria Trechmann 1918 nec Castelnau 1873 nec Tepper 1889, Hectorina Finlay 1927]BJ65

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B75] Boucot, A. J. 1975. Evolution and Extinction Rate Controls. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.

[BJ65] Boucot, A. J., J. G. Johnson, C. W. Pitrat & R. D. Staton. 1965. Spiriferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 2 pp. H632–H728. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[BS12] Brett, C. E., T. Smrecak, K. P. Hubbard & S. Walker. 2012. Marine sclerobiofacies: encrusting and endolithic communities on shells through time and space. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 129–157. Springer.

[DX84] Ding Y., Xia G., Duan C., Li W., Liu X. & Liang Z. 1984. Study on the early Permian stratigraphy and fauna in Zhesi district, Nei Mongol Zizhiqu (Inner Mongolia). Bulletin Tianjin Institure Geol. Min. Res. 10.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[HB93] Harper, D. A. T., C. H. C. Brunton, L. R. M. Cocks, P. Copper, E. N. Doyle, A. L. Jeffrey, E. F. Owen, M. A. Parkes, L. E. Popov & C. D. Prosser. 1993. Brachiopoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 427–462. Chapman & Hall: London.

[MB12] Mistiaen, B., D. Brice, M. K. Zapalski & C. Loones. 2012. Brachiopods and their auloporid epibionts in the Devonian of Boulonnais (France): comparison with other associations globally. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 159–188. Springer.

[M03] Modzalevskaya, T. L. 2003. Silurian and Devonian brachiopods from Severnaya Zemlya (Russian Arctic). Geodiversitas 25 (1): 73–107.

[M-WW65] Muir-Wood, H., & A. Williams. 1965. Strophomenida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 1 pp. H361–H521. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[N79] Norris, A. W. 1979. Devonian in the Western Hemisphere. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A218–A253. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[RG04] Racheboeuf, P. R., R. Gourvennec, M. Deynoux & D. Brice. 2004. The Devonian of the Hodh area (Islamic Republic of Mauritania): paleontology and stratigraphy. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 98–110.

[SB04] Sun, Y., A. Baliński, X. Ma & Y. Zhang. 2004. New bizarre micro-spiriferid brachiopod from the Early Carboniferous of China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (2): 267–274.

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