Spirobolus sp., from here.

Belongs within: Eugnatha.
Contains: Rhinocricus, Dinematocricus, Spirobolus.

The Spirobolida are a group of cylindrical millipedes with distinct pleural sclerites.

The Rhinocricidae are a family of millipedes found in Central and northern South America, and from Indonesia and the Philippines to eastern Australia.

Characters (from Hoffman 1990): Body of adults with more than twenty segments; ocellaria basically rounded to round-oval, no transverse suture evident between them; gnathochilarium rectangular with triangular mentum and small distal lingual lamellae; sterna, pleura and terga coalesced into rigid cylindrical rings, but remain distinguished by presence of articular sutures; pair of legs present on segment 3; gonopods composed of both pairs of legs of seventh segment.

<==Spirobolida [Anocheta, Spirobolidea]
    |  i. s.: EucarliaA27
    |         ChersastusA27
    |--Floridobolus [Floridobolidae]H90
    |    `--F. penneriH90
    |--Plagiascetus [Plagiascetidae]RB93
    |    `--P. lateralis Hoffman 1963RB93
    |--Anthracojulus [Anthracojulidae]RB93
    |    `--A. pictus Fritsch 1899RB93
    |--Nyranius [Nyraniidae]RB93
    |    |--N. costulatus (Fritsch 1883)RB93
    |    `--N. tabulatus (Fritsch 1899)RB93
    |    |--Plagioscetus lateralisWA04
    |    |--Tomiulus angulatus Martynov 1936RB93
    |    `--XyloiulusWA04
    |         |--X. moniliformis (Woodward 1905)H00
    |         `--X. sigillariae (Dawson 1860)RB93
    |    |--RhinocricusK55
    |    |--Perucricus Kraus 1954K54a
    |    |    `--*P. rostratus Kraus 1954K54a
    |    `--EurhinocricusK54a
    |         |--E. angustiramus Kraus 1954K54a
    |         `--E. peruvianus Kraus 1954K54a
    |--Trigoniulinae [Pachybolidae, Spiromimidae, Trigoniulidae]H94
    |    |--Speleostrophus Hoffman 1994T13
    |    |    `--*S. nesiotes Hoffman 1994CS13
    |    |--Allopocockia Brölemann 1914 [incl. Arolus Chamberlin 1922]K54b
    |    |    |--*A. tylopus (Pocock 1908)K54b
    |    |    |--A. atriculaK54b
    |    |    |--A. purulanaK54b
    |    |    `--A. rotunda Kraus 1954K54b
    |    |--TrigoniulusB13
    |    |    |--T. bitaeniatusA27
    |    |    |--T. burnetticus Attems in Semon 1898B13
    |    |    |--T. comma Attems in Semon 1898B13
    |    |    |--T. corallinusH94
    |    |    |--T. flavipesA27
    |    |    |--T. lissonotus Attems 1927A27
    |    |    |--T. lumbricinusA27
    |    |    |--T. sericatusA27
    |    |    `--T. targionii Silvestri 1897B13
    |    |--Leptogoniulus sorornusH94
    |    |--Acanthiulus Gervais 1844H94, B13 [incl. Polybunolobus Pocock 1893B13]
    |    |    |--*A. blainvillei (Le Guillou 1841) (see below for synonymy)B13
    |    |    `--A. murrayi Pocock 1893 [=*Polybunolobus murrayi]B13
    |    `--Zygostrophus Chamberlin 1920 [incl. Prionopeza Attems 1953]H94
    |    |--Eurelus soleatusH90
    |    |--Atopetholus californicusH90
    |    |--WatichelusH90
    |    |--PiedolusH90
    |    |--AnelusH90
    |    |--CentrelusH90
    |    |--ComanchelusH90
    |    |--ToltecolusH90
    |    |--UvaldiaH90
    |    |--Orthichelus michelbacheri (Verhoeff 1938) (see below for synonymy)C62
    |    |--Gobiulus sabulosus Dzik 1975RB93
    |    `--ArinolusH90
    |         |--A. citrinusC62
    |         |--A. michelbacheriC62
    |         |--A. nevadae Chamberlin 1962C62
    |         `--A. sequens Chamberlin 1962C62
         |--*Epitrigoniulus cruentatus (Brölemann 1902) [=Spirobolellus cruentatus]B13
         |--Paraspirobolus Brölemann 1901B13
         |--Chicobolus spinigerusH90, S96
         |--Eucentrolobus Pocock 1903B13
         |    |--*E. tumulusB13
         |    `--E. maindroni [=Acanthiulus maindroni]B13
         |--Pseudospirobolellus Carl 1912B13
         |    `--*P. bulbiferus (Attems 1907) [=Spirobolellus bulbiferus]B13
         |    |--N. americanusRS10
         |    `--N. annularusNS03
         |--Spirobolellus Pocock 1894B13
         |    |--*S. chrysodirus Pocock 1894B13
         |    |--S. chrysogrammusA27
         |    `--S. rainbowi Brölemann 1913B13
         |--Oxobolus Chamberlin 1922K54b
         |    |--O. distinctus Kraus 1954K54b
         |    |--O. mundus Chamberlin 1953K54b
         |    `--O. santanus Chamberlin 1953K54b
         `--Spirostrophus Saussure & Zehntner 1902B13
              |--*S. naresiiA27
              |--S. ambonensisA27
              |--S. digitulus Brölemann 1913B13 [=Zygostrophus digitulusA27]
              |--S. javanus Chamberlin 1921A27
              |--S. rubripesB13
              |--S. socius Chamberlin 1921A27
              |--S. targionii [=Zygostrophus targionii]A27
              `--S. xanthonotus Attems 1927A27

*Acanthiulus blainvillei (Le Guillou 1841) [=Julus blainvillei, Crigoniulus blainvillei; incl. Spirobolus dentatus Daday 1893]B13

Orthichelus michelbacheri (Verhoeff 1938) [=Onychelus michelbacheri, Atopetholus michelbacheri; incl. On. phanus Chamberlin 1941, Orthichelus phanus]C62

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A27] Attems, C. 1927. Myriopoden von Ambon und anderen Inseln der Banda-See. Zoologische Mededeelingen 10: 61–70.

[B13] Brölemann, H. W. 1913. The Myriapoda in the Australian Museum. Part ii. Diplopoda. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (6): 77–158, pls 14–18.

[CS13] Car, C. A., M. Short, C. Huynh & M. S. Harvey. 2013. The millipedes of Barrow Island, Western Australia (Diplopoda). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 209–219.

[C62] Chamberlin, R. V. 1962. Millipeds from the Nevada Test Area. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 53–56.

[H00] Hannibal, J. T. 2000. Hexecontasoma, a new helminthomorph millipede (Hexecontasomatidae n. fam.) from the Mazon Creek, Illinois, fauna (Carboniferous, North America). Fragmenta Faunistica 43 (Suppl.): 19–35.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835–860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[H94] Hoffman, R. L. 1994. Studies on spiroboloid millipeds. XVIII. Speleostrophus nesiotes, the first known troglobitic spiroboloid milliped, from Barrow Island, Western Australia (Diplopoda: Pachybolidae: Trigoniulinae). Myriapodologica 3 (3): 19–24.

[H02] Hunt, D. J. 2002. The African Rhigonematoidea (Nematoda: Rhigonematida). 1. Trachyglossus quintus gen. n., sp. n. (Xustrostomatidae fam. n.) with redescription of Rhigonema multipapillatum (Skrjabin, 1916) and designation of a neotype. Nematology 4: 671–686.

[K54a] Kraus, O. 1954a. Myriapoden aus Peru, II. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 17–55.

[K54b] Kraus, O. 1954b. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5–6): 293–349.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Myriapoden aus Peru, III. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 173–200.

[NS03] Nardi, F., G. Spinsanti, J. L. Boore, A. Carapelli, R. Dallai & F. Frati. 2003. Hexapod origins: monophyletic or paraphyletic? Science 299: 1887–1889.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079–1083.

[RB93] Ross, A. J., & D. E. G. Briggs. 1993. Arthropoda (Euthycarcinoidea and Myriapoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 357–361. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S96] Shelley, R. M. 1996. Book Review: The Biology of Millipedes. Stephen P. Hopkin and Helen J. Read. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 169–172.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

[WA04] Wilson, H. M., & L. I. Anderson. 2004. Morphology and taxonomy of Paleozoic millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 169–184.

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