External views and axial section of Lituonella roberti, from Loeblich & Tappan (1964a).

Belongs within: Globothalamea.

The Pavonitinidae are a group of Foraminifera known from the Upper Jurassic to the present (Loeblich & Tappan 1964a).

    |    |  i. s.: Septigerina Keijzer 1941M13, LT64
    |    |           `--*S. dalmatica Keijzer 1941LT64
    |    |--NovalesiidaeM13
    |    |--Ecougella Arnaud-Vanneau 1980HW93 [EcougellidaeM13]
    |    |--SpirotextulariidaeM13
    |    |    |--SpirotextulariinaeM13
    |    |    `--Duquepsammina Seiglie & Baker 1987 [Duquepsammininae]M13
    |    `--Pavonitinidae [Pavonitininae]M13
    |         |--Pavonitina Schubert 1914LT64
    |         |    `--*P. styriaca Schubert 1914 [incl. Pseudotriplasia plana, Ps. robusta]LT64
    |         |--Pavopsammia Seiglie & Baker 1984B-F08
    |         |    `--P. flabellumB-F08
    |         |--Zotheculifida Loeblich & Tappan 1957B-F08
    |         |    `--*Z. lirata (Cushman & Jarvis 1929) [=Textularia lirata]LT64
    |         `--Lituonella Schlumberger in Schlumberger & Douvillé 1905LT64
    |              |--*L. roberti Schlumberger in Schlumberger & Douvillé 1905LT64
    |              |--L. douvilleiLT64
    |              `--L. liburnicaC40
    `--Spiroplectamminidae [Spiroplectamminoidea]M13
         |--Morulaeplecta Höglund 1947LT64 [MorulaplectinaeM13]
         |    `--*M. bulbosa Höglund 1947LT64
         |--Vulvulina d’Orbigny 1826LT64 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--*V. capreolus d’Orbigny 1826 [=*Trigenerina capreolus]LT64
         |    |--V. advenaC40
         |    |--V. coleiC40
         |    |--*Schizophora’ neugeboreni Reuss 1861LT64
         |    |--*Venilina’ nummulina Gümbel 1870LT64
         |    `--V. pennatulaC40
              |--Ammospirata Cushman 1933LT64
              |    `--*A. mexicana (Cushman 1926) [=Pavonina mexicana]LT64
              |--Spiroplectammina Cushman 1927LT64
              |    |--*S. biformis (Parker & Jones 1865) [=Textularia agglutinans var. biformis]LT64
              |    |--S. castensisC40
              |    |--S. niigataensis Asano & Inomata in Asano 1952H03
              |    `--S. scottiC40
              `--Bolivinopsis Yakovlev 1891 [incl. Spiroplectoides Cushman 1927]LT64
                   |--*B. capitata Yakovlev 1891LT64
                   |--B. clotho [incl. Spiroplectammina grzybowskii]LT64
                   |--B. cubensisB49
                   |--B. papillataC40
                   `--B. rosula (Ehrenberg 1854) [=Spiroplecta rosula, *Spiroplectoides rosula]LT64

Vulvulina d’Orbigny 1826LT64 [=Trigenerina Schubert 1902LT64; incl. Schizophora Reuss 1861LT64, Venilina Gümbel 1870LT64; VulvulininaeM13]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B49] Battey, M. H. 1949. The geology of the Tuakau-Mercer area, Auckland. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 429–455.

[B-F08] BouDagher-Fadel, M. K. 2008. The Cenozoic larger benthic foraminifera: the Palaeogene. Developments in Palaeontology and Stratigraphy 21: 297–418.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[HW93] Hart, M. B., & C. L. Williams. 1993. Protozoa. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 43–70. Chapman & Hall: London.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[M13] Mikhalevich, V. I. 2013. New insight into the systematics and evolution of the Foraminifera. Micropaleontology 59 (6): 493–527.

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