Austrisaturnalis quadriradiatus, from Afanasieva et al. (2005).

Belongs within: Spumellaria.

The Spongentactiniidae are a group of radiolarians known from the Middle Cambrian to the Permian (Afanasieva et al. 2005).

Characters (from Afanasieva et al. 2005): Inner frame in shape of four- to six-rayed spicule, rays of which are connected to four to six external main spines that are three-bladed, conical, or rodlike in shape.

    |    |--Fungomacula Won in Won & Below 1999AA05
    |    |--Pararcheoentactinia Won & Iams 2002AA05
    |    |    `--P. reedaeMB07
    |    |--Retentactinia Won 1997AA05
    |    |    `--R. kelleriAA05
    |    `--Tetragregnon Ormiston & Lane 1976AA05
    |         `--T. quadrispinosaAA05
       |    |--Pluristratoentactinia Nazarov 1981AA05
       |    |    `--P. conspissataAA05
       |    `--Meschedea Won 1983AA05
       |         `--M. crassicortexAA05
       |    |--Spongentactinia Nazarov 1975AA05
       |    |--Retisphaera Won 1997AA05
       |    |    `--R. exquisitaAA05
       |    `--Tetrentactinia Foreman 1963AA05
       |         `--T. barysphaeraAA05
            |    |--Charlottea Whalen & Carter 1998AA05
            |    |--Cryptostephanidium Dumitrica 1978AA05
            |    |--Divatella Kozur & Mostler 1981AA05
            |    |--Ferresium Blome 1984AA05
            |    |--Perispyridium Dumitrica 1978AA05
            |    |--Protoperispyridium Yeh 1987AA05
            |    |--Pylostephanidium Dumitrica 1978AA05
            |    |--Spongostephanidium Dumitrica 1978AA05
            |    |--Tozerium Whalen & Carter 1998AA05
            |    |--Triassistephanidium Dumitrica 1978AA05
            |    |--Xenorum Blome 1984AA05
            |    `--Eptingium Dumitrica 1978AA05
            |         `--E. manfrediAA05
                 |    |--Beturiella Dumitrica, Kozur & Mostler 1980AA05
                 |    `--+--Baloghisphaera Kozur & Mostler 1979AA05
                 |       `--Multiarcusella Kozur & Mostler 1979AA05
                      |--Hungarosaturnalis Kozur & Mostler 1983AA05
                      |--Ornatisaturnalis Mostler & Kreiner 1994AA05
                      |--Praeheliostaurus Kozur & Mostler 1972AA05
                      |--Quadrisaturnalis Yeh 1989AA05
                      |--Solisaturnalis Mostler & Kreiner 1994AA05
                      |--Tiborella Dumitrica, Kozur & Mostler 1980AA05
                      `--Austrisaturnalis Kozur & Mostler 1972AA05
                           `--A. quadriradiatusAA05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AA05] Afanasieva, M. S., E. O. Amon, Y. V. Agarkov & D. S. Boltovskoy. 2005. Radiolarians in the geological record. Paleontological Journal 39 (Suppl. 3): S135–S392.

[MB07] Maletz, J., & D. L. Bruton. 2007. Lower Ordovician (Chewtonian to Castlemainian) radiolarians of Spitsbergen. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 5 (3): 245–288.

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