Spongopolyentactiniidae

Spongentactinella windyanensis, from Afanasieva et al. (2005).

Belongs within: Spumellaria.

The Spongopolyentactiniidae are a group of radiolarians known from the Middle Cambrian to the Permian (Afanasieva et al. 2005).

Characters (from Afanasieva et al. 2005): Inner frame in shape of 8-, 12-, -24, or more-rayed spicule, rays of which are connected to 8, 12, 24, or more external main spines (three-bladed, conical, or rodlike in shape).

<==SpongopolyentactiniidaeAA05
    |--SpongopolyentactiniinaeAA05
    |    |--Duodecimentactinia Won 1997AA05
    |    |--Multientactinia Won 1997AA05
    |    |--Spongomassa Won in Won & Below 1999AA05
    |    `--Spongentactinella Nazarov 1975AA05
    |         |--S. corynacanthaAA05
    |         |--S. olafiAA05
    |         |--S. velesAA05
    |         `--S. windyanensisAA05
    `--+--SomphoentactiniinaeAA05
       |    |--Spongosphaera Won 1997AA05
       |    |    `--S. streptacanthaC-SCL15
       |    |--Adamas Afanasieva 2000AA05
       |    |    `--A. cathedrariusAA05
       |    `--Somphoentactinia Nazarov 1975AA05
       |         |--S. gavriloviAA05
       |         `--S. somphozonaAA05
       `--+--ConocaryommidaeAA05
          |    |--Hegleria Nazarov & Ormiston 1985AA05
          |    |--Praeconocaryomma Pessagno 1976 [Praeconocaryommidae]AA05
          |    `--‘Conocaryomma’ Lipman 1969 non Haeckel 1887AA05
          |         `--C. aralensisAA05
          |--PlenoentactiniinaeAA05
          |    |--Plenoentactinia Won 1997AA05
          |    |--Copicyntra Nazarov & Ormiston 1985AA05
          |    |    `--C. acilaxaAA05
          |    `--Provisocyntra Nazarov & Ormiston 1987AA05
          |         `--P. amplissimaAA05
          `--SaturnalataAA05
               |--OertlispongidaeAA05
               |    |--Baumgartneria Dumitrica 1982AA05
               |    |--Bogdanella Kolar-Jurkovsek 1989AA05
               |    |--Falcispongus Dumitrica 1982AA05
               |    |--Gibberospongus Kozur & Mostler 1996AA05
               |    |--Oertlispongus Dumitrica, Kozur & Mostler 1980AA05
               |    |--Paroertlispongus Kozur & Mostler 1981AA05
               |    |--Pterospongus Dumitrica 1982AA05
               |    |--Scutispongus Kozur & Mostler 1996AA05
               |    |--Steigerispongus Kozur & Mostler 1996AA05
               |    |--Turospongus Kozur & Mostler 1994AA05
               |    `--Spongoserrula Dumitrica 1980AA05
               |         `--S. rarauanaAA05
               `--SaturnalidaeAA05
                    |--HexasaturnalinaeAA05
                    |    |--Dicerosaturnalis Dumitrica & Dumitrica-Jud in O’Dogherty 1994AA05
                    |    |--Eospongosaturninus Kozur & Mostler 1990AA05
                    |    |--Hexasaturnalis Kozur & Mostler 1983AA05
                    |    `--Octosaturnalis Kozur & Mostler 1990AA05
                    |--HeliosaturnalinaeAA05
                    |    |--Heliosaturnalis Kozur & Mostler 1972AA05
                    |    |--Palaeosaturnalis Donofrio & Mostler 1978AA05
                    |    |--Parasaturnalis Kozur & Mostler 1972AA05
                    |    |--Praehexasaturnalis Kozur & Mostler 1983AA05
                    |    |--Spongosaturnaloides Kozur & Mostler 1972AA05
                    |    |--Stauracanthocircus Kozur & Mostler 1983AA05
                    |    `--Pseudoheliodiscus Kozur & Mostler 1972 [incl. Pessagnosaturnalis Kozur 1979]AA05
                    |         `--P. radiosusAA05
                    `--+--AxopruninaeAA05
                       |    |--Amphisphaerella Haeckel 1887AA05
                       |    |--Axoprunum Haeckel 1887AA05
                       |    |--Stylacontarium Popofsky 1912AA05
                       |    |--Xiphosphaerella Haeckel 1887AA05
                       |    `--Xiphostyletta Haeckel 1887AA05
                       `--SaturnalinaeAA05
                            |--Saturnalis Haeckel 1887AA05
                            |--Acanthocircus Squinabol 1903AA05
                            |--Aurisaturnalis Dumitrica & Dumitrica-Jud 1994AA05
                            |--Praeacanthocircus Kozur & Mostler 1983AA05
                            |--Pseudacanthocircus Kozur & Mostler 1990AA05
                            |--Spinoellipsella Kozur & Mostler 1990AA05
                            |--Spongosaturninus Campbell & Clark 1944AA05
                            `--Vitorfus Pessagno 1977AA05

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AA05] Afanasieva, M. S., E. O. Amon, Y. V. Agarkov & D. S. Boltovskoy. 2005. Radiolarians in the geological record. Paleontological Journal 39 (Suppl. 3): S135–S392.

[C-SCL15] Cavalier-Smith, T., E. E. Chao & R. Lewis. 2015. Multiple origins of Heliozoa from flagellate ancestors: new cryptist subphylum Corbihelia, superclass Corbistoma, and monophyly of Haptista, Cryptista, Hacrobia and Chromista. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 93: 331–362.

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