Staphylinidae

Oxyporus maxillosus, copyright Nikolai Vladimirov.

Belongs within: Staphylinoidea.
Contains: Pseudopsinae, Scaphidiinae, Osoriini, Piestinae, Oxytelinae, Proteininae, Omaliinae, Paederinae, Staphylininae, Mycetoporini, Phloeocharinae, Silphidae, Tachyporinae, Scydmaeninae, Aleocharinae, Steninae, Euaesthetinae, Leptotyphlinae, Pselaphinae, Leptochirini, Thoracophorini.

The Staphylinidae is an extremely large family of usually small, gracile beetles with a flexible abdomen. Many staphylinids have reduced elytra that expose the greater part of a long, flexible abdomen, but there are notable exceptions. Most or all of the abdomen is covered by the elytra in subfamilies such as Scydmaeninae and many Omaliinae. Molecular phylogenetic analyses also indicate that some other groups with complete elytra classified to date in separate families, such as the Silphidae, may also be derived from within the Staphylinidae (Lü et al. 2020). Staphylinids with complete elytra can usually be distinguished from other beetles by the presence of six visible abdominal ventrites and the lack of lobes on the fourth tarsomeres (Newton et al. 2001). Ocelli are commonly absent but are present in some subfamilies such as Omaliinae.

The majority of staphylinids are predatory but a number of species feed on carrion, algae or fungi (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Some, such as a number of members of the Aleocharinae and Pselaphinae, are specialised inquilines of social insects. Inquilines may have a flattened, limuloid body form that possibly provides physical protection from their hosts, or they may have a physogastric abdomen and/or exudatory trichomes that gives them a physical or chemical resemblance to the host insects (Seevers 1957). Some staphylinids are subsocial with adults caring for larvae in nests or burrows (Newton et al. 2001).

Subgroups of the Staphylinidae include the Apateticinae which have elytra covering most of the abdomen, lobed tarsomeres and gradually clavate antennae. The Habrocerinae have a very compact, shining body with few large setae and extremely slender, verticillate antennae. The genus Trichophya has similar antennae to the Habrocerinae but the body is more densely punctate and setose. The Trigonurinae are a Holarctic subfamily with a compact body form and relatively long elytra that extend past the thorax and leave only five tergites exposed. Micropeplinae have nine-segmented antennae with the last forming a large club (Newton et al. 2001). Olisthaerus is a Holarctic genus with a unique prosternal structure, with the postcoxal process separated from the rest of the prosternum by a suture and slightly movable (Newton et al. 2001).

Staphylinidae [Osoriinae, Oxyporidae, Oxytelidae, Piestides, Staphilinii, Staphyliniae]
    |--+--+--ApateticinaeLC20
    |  |  |    |--Apatetica princepsLC20
    |  |  |    `--Nodynus Waterhous 1876GN09
    |  |  |         `--N. leucofasciatus (Lewis 1879GN09
    |  |  `--+--HabrocerinaeLC20
    |  |     |    |--Nomimocerus Coiffait & Sáiz 1965NT01
    |  |     |    `--Habrocerus Erichson 1839NT01
    |  |     |         |--H. capillaricornis (Gravenhorst 1806)NT01
    |  |     |         |--H. magnus LeConte 1878NT01
    |  |     |         `--H. schwarzi Horn 1877NT01
    |  |     `--+--Trichophya Mannerheim 1830NT01 [incl. Eumitocerus Casey 1886NT01; TrichophyinaeLC20]
    |  |        |    |--T. pilicornis (Gyllenhal 1810)NT01
    |  |        |    `--T. tarsalisLC20
    |  |        `--TrigonurinaeLC20
    |  |             |--Trigonurus Mulsant 1847GN09
    |  |             |    |--T. caelatus LeConte 1874GN09
    |  |             |    `--T. crotchiiLC20
    |  |             `--Abolescus glabratusLC20
    |  `--+--+--PseudopsinaeLC20
    |     |  `--ScaphidiinaeLC20
    |     `--+--OsoriiniLC20
    |        `--+--PiestinaeLC20
    |           `--OxytelinaeLC20
    `--+--+--Micropeplinae [Micropeplidae]LC20
       |  |    |--Peplomicrus mexicanus Campbell 1978B14
       |  |    |--Micropeplus Latreille 1809NT01
       |  |    |    |--M. dokuchaeviGE05
       |  |    |    |--M. fulvusLC20
       |  |    |    `--M. punctatusLC20
       |  |    |--Kalissus LeConte 1874NT01
       |  |    |    `--K. nitidus LeConte 1874NT01
       |  |    `--Protopeplus cretaceusLC20
       |  `--+--ProteininaeLC20
       |     `--OmaliinaeLC20
       `--+--+--+--PaederinaeLC20
          |  |  `--StaphylininaeLC20
          |  `--Olisthaerus Dejean 1833LC20, NT01 [Olisthaerinae]
          |       |--O. megacephalus (Zetterstedt 1828)LC20, NT01
          |       `--+--O. substriatus (Gyllenhal 1827)LC20, NT01
          |          `--MycetoporiniLC20
          `--+--+--PhloeocharinaeLC20
             |  `--+--SilphidaeLC20
             |     `--TachyporinaeLC20
             `--+--+--ScydmaeninaeLC20
                |  `--SolieriinaeLC20
                |       |--Solierius Bernhauer 1921GN09
                |       |    `--S. obscurus (Solier 1849)B14
                |       `--ProsolieriusB14
                |            |--P. crassicornisB14
                |            |--P. mixticornisB14
                |            `--P. tenuicornisB14
                `--+--AleocharinaeLC20
                   `--+--+--+--SteninaeLC20
                      |  |  `--EuaesthetinaeLC20
                      |  `--+--Megalopinus Eichelbaum 1915GN09 (see below for synonymy)
                      |     |    |--M. caelatus (Gravenhorst 1802)NT01
                      |     |    |--M. cruciger (Sharp 1886)B14
                      |     |    |--M. rufipes (LeConte 1863)NT01
                      |     |    `--M. sanguinitriguttatus (Scheerpeltz 1972)GN09
                      |     `--+--LeptotyphlinaeLC20
                      |        `--Oxyporus Fabriciaus 1775GN09 [incl. Pseudoxyporus Nakane & Sawada 1956NT01; OxyporinaeLC20]
                      |             |--O. femoralisBC16
                      |             |--O. lateralis Gravenhorst 1802GN09
                      |             |--O. mannerheimiC01
                      |             |--O. maxillosusB14
                      |             |--O. occipitalis Fauvel 1864GN09
                      |             |--O. rufipennis LeConte 1963GN09
                      |             |--O. rufus (Linnaeus 1758)B14 [=Staphylinus rufusG20]
                      |             |--O. vittatusNT01
                      |             `--O. yixianusLC20
                      `--+--+--Neophonus [Neophoninae]LC20
                         |  |    `--N. bruchi Fauvel 1905B14
                         |  `--+--Dasycerinae [Dasyceridae]LC20
                         |     |    |--Dasycerus Brongniart 1800B00
                         |     |    |    |--*D. sulcatus Brongniart 1800B00
                         |     |    |    |--D. angulicollisLC20
                         |     |    |    |--D. bicolorB14
                         |     |    |    `--D. carolinensis Horn 1882B14
                         |     |    `--Protodasycerus aenigmaticusLC20
                         |     `--PselaphinaeLC20
                         `--+--Charhyphus Sharp 1887LC20, NT01 (see below for synonymy)
                            |    |--C. arizonensis Herman 1972NT01
                            |    `--C. picipennis (LeConte 1863)NT01
                            `--+--LeptochiriniLC20
                               `--+--NeolispinusLC20
                                  `--+--EleusininiNT01
                                     |    |--Renardia Motschulsky 1865 [incl. Eumalus Sharp 1887]NT01
                                     |    |    |--R. canadensis (Horn 1871)NT01
                                     |    |    `--R. nigrella (LeConte 1863) [incl. R. jubilaea Motschulsky 1865]NT01
                                     |    `--Eleusis Laporte 1835LC20, NT01 [incl. Isomalus Erichson 1839NT01]
                                     |         |--E. humilis (Erichson 1840) [incl. E. fasciata (LeConte 1863)]NT01
                                     |         |--E. muticaLC20
                                     |         |--E. pallida (LeConte 1863)NT01
                                     |         `--E. parva Blackb. 1892M96
                                     `--ThoracophoriniLC20
Staphylinidae incertae sedis:
  Paratorchus microphthalmus (Fauvel 1900)E02
  StenomaliumE02
  Anicula infernaP02
  CariridermaS02
  ProrhinopseniusZhe02
  Brevicula gradus Whalley 1985Zha02
  AcheniumG89
    |--A. cribriceps Fauv. 1886G89
    |--A. distinctum Lucas 1846E12
    `--A. haemorrhoidale Lucas 1846E12
  HesperomimusDK08
  Canariobolitobius Schülke 2004F05
    `--*C. filicornis (Wollaston 1864) [=Bolitobius filicornis]F05
  Paratyphlus maestratensis Hernando & Fancello 2004F05
  ‘Heterosoma’ Bernhauer 1903 non Schaum 1845LT61
  Protopselaphus Newton & Thayer 1995 [Protopselaphinae]NG05
  Ischnoglossa prolixaO86
  CoptolimulusB74
  CoptophilusB74
  Eulissus chalcopterusB70
  Myrmelibia kingiNT01
  Pareiobledius pruinosusNT01
  LamprinusRD77
  BembicidiodesP92
  PlaneustomusP92
  Palaeopsenius Seevers 1971P92
    `--P. mexicanus Seevers 1971P92
  Paracyptus Seevers 1971P92
    `--P. minutissima Seevers 1971P92
  Paracraspedomerus Moore 1960 [=Xystridiogaster Scheerpeltz 1966]M72
    `--*P. speculifrons [=Cafius speculifrons, *Xystridiogaster speculifrons]M72
  OdontolinusMF15
  Priochirus milesLB91
  Cephennomicrus lawrencei Jaloszyńģski 2017JG19

Charhyphus Sharp 1887LC20, NT01 [incl. Pseudeleusis Bernhauer 1923NT01, Triga Fauvel 1878 non Gray 1867NT01, Trigites Handlirsch 1907NT01]

Megalopinus Eichelbaum 1915GN09 [incl. Megalops Erichson 1839 non Lacepède 1803NT01, Megalopsidia Leng 1918NT01; MegalopsidiinaeLC20]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[B74] Britton, E. B. 1974. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 62–89. Melbourne University Press.

[B00] Brongniart, A. 1800. Sur un nouveau genre d’insecte des environs de Paris. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (39): 115–116.

[BC16] Brunke, A. J., S. Chatzimanolis, H. Schillhammer & A. Solodovnikov. 2016. Early evolution of the hyperdiverse rove beetle tribe Staphylinini (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae) and a revision of its higher classification. Cladistics 32 (4): 427–451.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[DK08] Dohm, P., D. Kovač, A. Freidberg & R. Bin Hashim. 2008. Biology of the Oriental bamboo-inhabiting fly Felderimyia gombakensis and observations on mating trophallaxis in Felderimyia (Insecta, Diptera, Tephritidae, Phytalmiinae, Acanthonevrini). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 311–318.

[E02] Emberson, R. M. 2002. The beetle (Coleoptera) fauna of the Chatham Islands: additions and corrections. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 69–77.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso “Esploratore” dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GN09] Grebennikov, V. V., & A. F. Newton. 2009. Good-bye Scydmaenidae, or why the ant-like stone beetles should become megadiverse Staphylinidae sensu latissimo (Coleoptera). European Journal of Entomology 106: 275–301.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[JG19] James, D. J., P. T. Green, W. F. Humphreys & J. C. Z. Woinarski. 2019. Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (2): 55–114.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[LT61] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1961. Remarks on the systematics of the Sarkodina (Protozoa), renamed homonyms and new and validated genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 213–234.

[LC20] Lü, L., C.-Y. Cai, X. Zhang, A. F. Newton, M. K. Thayer & H.-Z. Zhou. 2020. Linking evolutionary mode to palaeoclimate change reveals rapid radiations of staphylinoid beetles in low-energy conditions. Current Zoology 66 (4): 435–444.

[M96] Masters, G. 1896. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Supplement, part II. Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydrophyllidae, Staphylinidae, Pselaphidae, Paussidae, Silphidae, Scaphididae, Histeridae, Phalacridae, Nitidulidae, Trogositidae, Colydiidae, Cucujidae, Cryptophagidae, Lathridiidae, Mycetophagidae, Dermestidae, Byrrhidae, Parnidae, Heteroceridae. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (Suppl.): 695–754.

[MF15] McKenna, D. D., B. D. Farrell, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, D. R. Maddison, A. E. Seago, A. E. Z. Short, A. F. Newton & M. K. Thayer. 2015. Phylogeny and evolution of Staphyliniformia and Scarabaeiformia: forest litter as a stepping stone for diversification of nonphytophagous beetles. Systematic Entomology 40: 35–60.

[M72] Moore, I. 1972. Xystridiogaster Scheerpeltz, a synonym of Paracraspedomerus Moore (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (3): 218.

[NT01] Newton, A. F., M. K. Thayer, J. S. Ashe & D. S. Chandler. 2001. Staphylinidae Latreille, 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 272–418. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[NG05] Nomura, S., & I. Abd Ghani. 2005. Faunistic notes on the pselaphine species of the supertribes Goniaceritae, Pselaphitae and Clavigeritae from Malaysia and Singapore (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae). Serangga 10 (1–2): 1–36.

[O86] Olliff, A. S. 1886. A revision of the Staphylinidae of Australia. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 403–473, pl. 7.

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[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Scarabaeidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Coleoptera Linné, 1758. The beetles. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 164–176. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

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[Zha02] Zhang, J.-F. 2002. The most primitive earwigs (Archidermaptera, Dermaptera, Insecta) from the Upper Jurassic of Nei Monggol Autonomous Region, northeastern China. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 19 (4): 348–362.

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