Stauraxonaria

Archaeospongoprunum, from Xiao et al. (2017).

Belongs within: Radiozoa.
Contains: Pyramidata, Radiiformata, Lobatiradiata, Spongodiscidae, Coccodiscilae, Sponguracea, Pseudoaulophacidae, Pylonioidea, Larnacillioidea.

The Stauraxonaria are a major group of radiolarians characterised by intersecting axes of symmetry lying in a plane vertical to the main axis (Afanasieva et al. 2005).

Characters (from Afanasieva et al. 2005): Mono- or polyaxonic or heteropolar stauraxonic Polycystina with variously flattened, convex, or armed skeletons, with inner frame formed by hollow sphere, spicule, or microsphere.

<==Stauraxonaria [Porodiscida]AA05
| i. s.: Pentinastrum Haeckel 1881H04, AA05
| `--P. asteriscusH04
| Hexinastrum Haeckel 1881H04, AA05
| `--H. geryonidumH04
| Archidiscus Haeckel 1887H04, AA05
| `--A. pyloniscusH04
| Tholoma Haeckel 1887H04, AA05 [Larcoidea]
| `--T. metallassonH04
|--+--PyramidataAA05
| `--+--RadiiformataAA05
| `--LobatiradiataAA05
|--Spongodiscata [Coccodiscacea, Cenodiscicae]AA05
| |--+--SpongodiscidaeAA05
| | `--CoccodiscilaeAA05
| `--RelindellidaeAA05
| |--Pentaspongodiscus Kozur & Mostler 1979AA05
| |--Relindella Kozur & Mostler 1980AA05
| `--Tetraspongodiscus Kozur & Mostler 1979AA05
|--Palaeodiscidae [Palaeodiscata]AA05
| |--Copicyntroides Nazarov & Ormiston 1985AA05
| |--Gedauia Won 1983AA05
| |--‘Palaeodiscus’ Afanasieva 2000 non Salter 1857AA05
| |--Primaritripus Afanasieva 2000AA05
| |--Sphaerodiscus Won 1983AA05
| `--Eostylodictya Ormiston & Lane 1976AA05
| `--E. eccentricaAA05
|--SpongurataAA05
| |--SponguraceaAA05
| `--Litheliacea [Lithelida]LT61
| |--LaracaridaLT61
| `--LitheliidaeAA05
| |--Cromyodruppa Haeckel 1887AA05
| `--Lithelius Haeckel 1860AA05
| `--L. spiralis Haeckel 1860BC98
|--Pyloniata [Dactyliosphaeroidea]AA05
| |--PatruliidaeAA05
| | |--Patrulius Dumitrica 1989AA05
| | `--Tetratholura Dumitrica 1989AA05
| `--+--+--+--PseudoaulophacidaeAA05
| | | `--+--PylonioideaAA05
| | | `--LarnacillioideaAA05
| | `--VeghicycliidaeAA05
| | |--Carinacyclia Kozur & Mostler 1972AA05
| | |--Praeorbiculiformella Kozur & Mostler 1978AA05
| | `--Veghicyclia Kozur & Mostler 1972AA05
| | `--V. reiflingensisAA05
| `--+--Dactyliosphaera Squinabol 1904 [Dactyliosphaeridae]AA05
| | `--D. silviaeAA05
| `--+--CatenopylidaeAA05
| | |--Catenopyle Dumitrica 1989AA05
| | `--Praecatenopyle Dumitrica 1989AA05
| `--EmiluviidaeAA05
| |--Emiluvia Foreman 1973AA05
| |--Kreutzstella Empson-Morin 1981AA05
| `--Tympaneides Carter 1988AA05
`--OviformataAA05
|--StaurodruppidaeAA05
| |--Spongocoela Hinde 1899AA05
| `--Staurodruppa Hinde 1899AA05
|--SpongolonchidaeAA05
| |--Spongolonche Hinde 1899AA05
| `--Copiellintra Nazarov & Ormiston 1985AA05
| `--C. diploacantaAA05
`--+--PhaseliformidaeAA05
| |--Parvicuspis Pessagno 1972AA05
| `--Phaseliforma Pessagno 1972AA05
|--GomberellidaeAA05
| |--Bernoullius Baumgartner 1984AA05
| |--Karnospongella Kozur & Mostler 1981AA05
| |--Tamonella Dumitrica, Kozur & Mostler 1980AA05
| `--Gomberellus Dumitrica, Kozur & Mostler 1980AA05
| `--G. hircicornusAA05
`--ArchaeospongoprunidaeAA05
|--Pararchaeospongoprunum Lahm 1984AA05
|--Spongoprunum Haeckel 1887AA05
|--Wilvemia Pessagno, Blome & Hull 1993AA05
`--Archaeospongoprunum Pessagno 1973AA05
`--A. minimumBL79

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AA05] Afanasieva, M. S., E. O. Amon, Y. V. Agarkov & D. S. Boltovskoy. 2005. Radiolarians in the geological record. Paleontological Journal 39 (Suppl. 3): S135–S392.

[BL79] Basov, V. A., B. G. Lopatin, I. S. Gramberg, A. I. Danjushevskaya, V. Ya. Kaban’kov, V. M. Lazurkin & D. K. Patrunov. 1979. Lower Cretaceous lithostratigraphy near Galicia Bank. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 47: 683–717.

[BC98] Bjørklund, K. R., G. Cortese, N. Swanberg & H. J. Schrader. 1998. Radiolarian faunal provinces in surface sediments of the Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian (GIN) Seas. Marine Micropalaeontology 35: 105–140.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[LT61] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1961. Remarks on the systematics of the Sarkodina (Protozoa), renamed homonyms and new and validated genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 213–234.

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