Steninae

Stenus biguttatus, copyright Aleksandrs Balodis.

Belongs within: Staphylinidae.

The Steninae are a group of rove beetles characterised by bulbous eyes, enclosed fore coxae and small, widely separated hind coxae. Members of the genus Stenus have very large eyes occupying almost the entire side of the head and a modified, protrusible labium whereas Dianous has smaller eyes and a normal labium (Newton et al. 2001).

Characters (from Newton et al. 2001): Body densely punctate or rugose; antennae inserted on vertex between eyes, slender but with apical two to three antennomeres forming a weak club; eyes very large and prominent; anterior coxae small, procoxal fissure closed, trochantin concealed; posterior coxae conical, not expanded laterally; tarsi 5-5-5; abdomen with six visible sterna and 0–1 pairs of paratergites per segment, in the former case the terga and sterna sometimes fused into solid rings.

<==Steninae [Stenides]GN09
|--Dianous Leach 1819GN09
| |--D. chalybaeus LeConte 1863NT01
| |--D. nitidulus LeConte 1874GN09
| `--D. shibataiP01
`--Stenus Latreille 1797GN09 (see below for synonymy)
| i. s.: S. aeneus Lucas 1846E12
| S. alienusC01
| S. anthracinusP01
| S. asyuraP01
| S. bicaraP01
| S. bipunctatusC01
| S. bosatsuP01
| S. brunnipesV09
| S. buphthalmusR26
| S. calcaratusC01
| S. carbonariusC01
| S. cephalotesP01
| S. cirriformisP01
| S. cirrusP01
| S. domburiP01
| S. euphorbiaeR26
| S. fornicatusLC20
| S. fuguP01
| S. fulvicornisV09
| S. himikoP01
| S. inaequatusP01
| S. indubiusP01
| S. inexpectatus Schlüter 1978P92
| S. jukataP01
| S. juncorumR26
| S. junoC01
| S. kasumiP01
| S. kirbiiR26
| S. kumomaP01
| S. lewisiusP01
| S. longisetosusP01
| S. melanariusP01
| |--S. m. melanariusP01
| `--S. m. verecundusP01
| S. nakaneiP01
| S. oblongulusP01
| S. obscurus Lucas 1846E12
| S. ohishiiP01
| S. oisamiP01
| S. pallitarsisC01
| S. palposusC01
| S. pekinensis Csiki 1901C01
| S. rufescensP01
| S. sakaiiP01
| S. satushinP01
| S. sawadaianusP01
| S. sawadaiellusP01
| S. sharpiP01
| S. similisC01
| S. sorbiR26
| S. stigmulaC01
| S. sugieiP01
| S. syugenP01
| S. taoiP01
| S. testaceopiceusP01
| S. unemeP01
| S. wasabiP01
| S. yashiroP01
|--S. (Stenus) biguttatus (Linnaeus 1758)G20, L58 [=Staphylinus biguttatusL02, Paederus (S.) biguttatusG20]
|--S. (Hemistenus) nachiensis Puthz 2001P01
|--S. (Hypostenus Rey 1884) [incl. Areus Casey 1884]NT01
| |--S. (H.) cribricollis Lea 1931B14
| |--S. (H.) cygnipenis Puthz 2001P01
| |--S. (H.) dainichi Puthz 2001P01
| |--S. (H.) fujiensis Puthz 2001P01
| |--S. (H.) fujimontis Puthz 2001P01
| |--S. (H.) geisha Puthz 2001P01
| `--S. (H.) wakayamanus Puthz 2001P01
`--S. (Nestus Rey 1884)P01, NT01
`--S. (N.) wasamatanus Puthz 2001P01

Stenus Latreille 1797GN09 [incl. Mutinus Casey 1884 non Fr. 1849 (ICBN)NT01, Parastenus Heyden 1905NT01, Tesnus Rey 1884NT01]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GN09] Grebennikov, V. V., & A. F. Newton. 2009. Good-bye Scydmaenidae, or why the ant-like stone beetles should become megadiverse Staphylinidae sensu latissimo (Coleoptera). European Journal of Entomology 106: 275–301.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[LC20] Lü, L., C.-Y. Cai, X. Zhang, A. F. Newton, M. K. Thayer & H.-Z. Zhou. 2020. Linking evolutionary mode to palaeoclimate change reveals rapid radiations of staphylinoid beetles in low-energy conditions. Current Zoology 66 (4): 435–444.

[NT01] Newton, A. F., M. K. Thayer, J. S. Ashe & D. S. Chandler. 2001. Staphylinidae Latreille, 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 272–418. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[P01] Puthz, V. 2001. Neue japanische Arten der Gattung Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) 266. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Steninen. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 108 (1): 41–55.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

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