Sterculioideae

 Indian almond Sterculia foetida, from here.

Belongs within: Malvaceae.

The Sterculioideae are a pantropical group of trees and shrubs with apetalous flowers. They were defined by Baum et al. (1998) as a node-based clade including Brachychiton paradoxum, Cola acuminata, Heritiera littoralis and Sterculia foetida. Sterculia species produce leathery (occasionally woody), dehiscent seed pods; the seeds of some species are edible. Dried fruits of the kola nut Cola acuminata are used as a flavouring. Brachychiton, bottletrees, is an Australasian genus including a number of species with thick trunks for storing water.

Characters (from S. R. Hinsley): Plants typically monoecious. Flowers apetalous (lacking petals), exinvolucellate (lacking an epicalyx), with a fleshy, usually petaloid, gamosepalous (fused) calyx, an absence of staminodes, a monadelphous staminal column, an androgynophore (a stalk separating the calyx from the stamens and styles), and apocarpous (i.e. separated) ovaries and fruits.

<==SterculioideaeBAN98
|--ColaBAN98
| |--C. acuminataBAN98
| `--C. lizaeFGN07
|--HeritieraBAN98
| |--H. actinophylla [=Argyrodendron actinophyllum]H90
| |--H. littoralisB00
| `--H. simplicifoliaW01
|--SterculiaJD05
| |--S. bidwilliC16
| |--S. diversifoliaC08
| |--S. foetidaBAN98
| |--S. guttataS02
| |--S. indicaDD73
| |--S. labruscaJD05
| |--S. lanceolataL02
| |--S. quadrificaB00
| |--S. religiosaYZ02
| |--S. rupestrisC16
| |--S. urensP03
| `--S. villosaCMT06
`--BrachychitonBAN98
|--B. acerifoliusB00
|--B. acuminatusMLP09
|--B. australisB00
|--B. carruthersiiC78
|--B. discolorB00
|--B. diversifoliusVT13
|--B. fitzgeraldianusVT13
|--B. gregoriiMLP09
|--B. incanusVT13
|--B. paradoxusB00
|--B. populneusPM10
| |--B. p. ssp. populneusH90
| `--B. p. ssp. trilobusH90
|--B. tridentatusVT13
|--B. tubersulatusVT13
|--B. viridiflorusVT13
|--B. viscidulusVT13
`--B. xanthophyllusVT13

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BAN98] Baum, D. A., W. S. Anderson & R. Nyffeler. 1998. A durian by any other name: taxonomy and nomenclature of the core Malvales. Harvard Papers in Botany 3 (2): 315–330.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C16] Cambage, R. H. 1916. Notes on the native flora of tropical Queensland. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 389–447, pls 57–61.

[CMT06] Chakrabarty, T., V. Maina & M. Tigga. 2006. Plants used in gathering honey by the Jarawas of Andaman Islands. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48: 205–206.

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In: Womersley, J. S. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 pp. 1–11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[DD73] Deb, D. B., & R. M. Dutta. 1973. Contribution to the flora of Tirap Frontier Division. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 547–573.

[FGN07] Fontaine, B., O. Gargominy & E. Neubert. 2007. Land snail diversity of the savanna/forest mosaic in Lopé National Park, Gabon. Malacologia 49 (2): 313–338.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185–273.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 2. Science Press: Beijing.

[MLP09] McKenzie, N. L., S. van Leeuwen & A. M. Pinder. 2009. Introduction to the Pilbara Biodiversity Survey, 2002–2007. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 3–89.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[PM10] Pereyra, V., & L. A. Mound. 2010. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Desmothrips (Thysanoptera, Aeolothripidae), an Australian genus of facultative flower-living predators. Systematic Entomology 35: 306–317.

[S02] Santharam, V. 2002. Fruit and nectar resources in a moist deciduous forest and their use by birds—a preliminary report. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 537–543.

[VT13] Vigilante, T., J. Toohey, A. Gorring, V. Blundell, T. Saunders, S. Mangolamara, K. George, J. Oobagooma, M. Waina, K. Morgan & K. Doohan. 2013. Island country: aboriginal connections, values and knowledge of the Western Australian Kimberley islands in the context of an island biological survey. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 145–182.

[W01] Watling, R. 2001. The relationships and possible distributional patterns of boletes in south-east Asia. Mycological Research 105 (12): 1440–1448.

[YZ02] Yahya, H. S. A., & A. A. Zarri. 2002. Status, ecology and behaviour of Narcondam hornbill (Aceros narcondami) in Narcondam Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 434–445.

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