Stereospondylomorpha

Restoration of Benthosuchus sushkini, from here.

Belongs within: Temnospondyli.
Contains: Stereospondyli.

The Stereospondylomorpha are a group of mostly aquatic temnospondyls known from the early Permian to early Cretaceous, though their diversity was much reduced after the end of the Triassic. They include the Permian Archegosauroidea, species of which were superficially crocodile-like with long narrow snouts.

Synapomorphies (from Yates & Warren 2000): Jugal extending anterior to orbit; prefrontal-jugal suture present; maxilla-nasal suture present; arcadian groove present on post glenoid area of mandible.

<==Stereospondylomorpha [Actinodontidae, Archegosauridae, Archegosauroidea]YW00
    |  i. s.: Bageherpeton Dias & Barberena 2001D07
    |           `--B. longignathusD07
    |         Syndiodosuchus tetricus Konzhukova 1956M93
    |         CollidosuchusH00
    |--SclerocephalusDS20 [incl. ActinodonYW00]
    |    |--S. bavaricus (Branca 1886)M93
    |    `--S. haeuseriYW00
    `--+--CheliderpetonDS20
       |    |--C. latirostreYW00
       |    `--C. vranyi Fritsch 1877M93
       `--+--IntasuchusM93 [IntasuchidaeH00]
          |    `--I. silvicola Konzhukova 1956M93
          `--+--+--+--+--Australerpeton cosgriffiPSH17
             |  |  |  `--PlatyoposaurusDS20
             |  |  |       |--P. rickardi (Twelvetrees 1880)TT05
             |  |  |       |--P. stuckenbergiYW00
             |  |  |       `--P. vjuschkovi Gubin 1989TT05
             |  |  `--+--+--Saharastega Sidor, O’Keefe et al. 2005DS20, SO05
             |  |     |  |    `--*S. moradiensis Sidor, O’Keefe et al. 2005SO05
             |  |     |  `--Nigerpeton Sidor, O’Keefe et al. 2005DS20, SO05
             |  |     |       `--*N. ricqlesi Sidor, O’Keefe et al. 2005SO05
             |  |     `--Dvinosauria [Trimerorhachoidea]YW00
             |  |          |--EugyrinusYW00 [EugyrinidaeH00]
             |  |          |    `--E. wildi (Woodward 1891)M93
             |  |          |--Neldasaurus wrightae Chase 1965DS20, RCQ03
             |  |          `--+--+--ErpetosaurusDS20
             |  |             |  `--TrimerorhachidaeRCQ03
             |  |             |       |--Dawsonerpeton polydens (Fritsch 1879)M93
             |  |             |       |--Lafonius lehmani Berman 1973M93
             |  |             |       `--TrimerorhachisDS20
             |  |             |            |--T. insignis Case 1935RCQ03
             |  |             |            `--T. rogersi Olson 1955M93
             |  |             `--DvinosauroideaYW00
             |  |                  |--EobrachyopidaeYW00
             |  |                  |    |--Acroplous voraxYW00
             |  |                  |    `--IsodectesDS20 [incl. BranchiosauravusBS00, PelionBS00; Peliontidae, Saurerpetontidae]
             |  |                  |         `--I. obtusus (Cope 1868)RCQ03 (see below for synonymy)
             |  |                  `--+--Dvinosaurus [Dvinosauridae]YW00
             |  |                     |    |--*D. primus Amalitskii 1921YW00, TT05
             |  |                     |    |--D. egregius Shishkin 1968M93
             |  |                     |    `--D. purlensis Shishkin 1968M93
             |  |                     `--+--Kourerpeton [Kourerpetontidae]H00
             |  |                        `--Tupilakosaurus [Tupilakosauridae]YW00
             |  |                             |--T. heilmani Nielsen 1954M93
             |  |                             `--T. wetlungensis Shishkin 1961M93
             |  `--+--StereospondyliDS20
             |     `--MelosauridaeTT05
             |          |--Konzhukovia vetusta (Konzhukova 1955)DS20, TT05
             |          |--Tryphosuchus kinelensis (V’yushkov 1955)TT05
             |          `--Uralosuchus tverdochlebovae Gubin 1993TT05
             `--+--Glanochthon latirostrisDS20, PSH17
                `--Archegosaurus decheni Goldfuss 1847DS20, M93

Isodectes obtusus (Cope 1868)RCQ03 [=Saurerpeton obtusumYW00; incl. Acheloma casei Broili 1913M93, Isodectes megalops Cope 1896YW00, M93]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BS00] Boy, J. A., & H.-D. Sues. 2000. Branchiosaurs: larvae, metamorphosis and heterochrony in temnospondyls and seymouriamorphs. In: Heatwole, H., & R. L. Carroll (eds) Amphibian Biology vol. 4. Palaeontology. The evolutionary history of amphibians pp. 1150–1197. Surrey Beatty & Sons.

[DS20] Daza, J. D., E. L. Stanley, A. Bolet, A. M. Bauer, J. S. Arias, A. Čerňanský, J. J. Bevitt, P. Wagner & S. E. Evans. 2020. Enigmatic amphibians in mid-Cretaceous amber were chameleon-like ballistic feeders. Science 370: 687–691.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[H00] Holmes, R. 2000. Palaeozoic temnospondyls. In: Heatwole, H., & R. L. Carroll (eds) Amphibian Biology vol. 4. Palaeontology. The evolutionary history of amphibians pp. 1081–1120. Surrey Beatty & Sons.

[M93] Milner, A. R. 1993. Amphibian-grade Tetrapoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 665–679. Chapman & Hall: London.

[RCQ03] Ruta, M., M. I. Coates & D. L. J. Quicke. 2003. Early tetrapod relationships revisited. Biological Reviews 78: 251–345.

[SO05] Sidor, C. A., F. R. O’Keefe, R. Damiani, J. S. Steyer, R. M. H. Smith, H. C. E. Larsson, P. C. Sereno, O. Ide & A. Maga. 2005. Permian tetrapods from the Sahara show climate-controlled endmism in Pangaea. Nature 434: 886–889.

[TT05] Tverdokhlebov, V. P., G. I. Tverdokhlebova, A. V. Minikh, M. V. Surkov & M. J. Benton. 2005. Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia. Earth-Science Reviews 69: 27–77.

[YW00] Yates, A. M., & A. A. Warren. 2000. The phylogeny of the ‘higher’ temnospondyls (Vertebrata: Choanata) and its implications for the monophyly and origins of the Stereospondyli. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 128: 77–121.

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