Stratiomyidae

Barred snout Nemotelus uliginosus, copyright David Gould.

Belongs within: Stratiomyomorpha.
Contains: Stratiomyini, Oxycerini, Sarginae, Clitellariinae, Pachygastrinae.

The Stratiomyidae, soldier flies, are an ecologically diverse group of often colourful flies. Larvae of the Stratiomyinae and Nemotelinae are aquatic whereas larvae of other subfamilies are terrestrial, mostly living in association with decaying plant or animal matter. As adults, the Chiromyzinae are markedly sexually dimorphic, with females much larger than males, and have atrophied mouthparts, an unarmed scutellum and an elongate abdomen. The Beridinae have a similarly elongate abdomen but retain functional mouthparts and usually have six or more marginal spines or tubercles on the scutellum. The Nemotelinae are characterised by the presence of six antennal flagellomeres and the absence of crossvein bm-cu (Woodley 2009). Eight antennal flagellomeres are present in the subfamilies Clitellariinae, Chrysochlorininae and Hermetiinae (Woodley 2009).

Characters (from James 1981): Slender to quite robust flies, 2–18 mm long. Colour usually yellow, green, blue, or black, sometimes metallic, frequently with variegated color patterns particularly on abdomen. Bristles not developed, though body, especially thorax, sometimes densely pilose. Head usually as broad as thorax but sometimes broader, hemispherical to spherical. Occipital (postocular) orbit often well-developed, especially in female. Eyes ranging from bare to densely hairy, widely separated in female, more narrowly separated or contiguous in male, each eye in male often divided into an upper area comprising large facets and a lower area of small facets; ocelli present. Antenna inserted at or below middle of head; scape and pedicel unmodified except in respect to elongation; flagellum consisting of five to eight flagellomeres. Proboscis usually fleshy, sometimes atrophied, sometimes elongated, never adapted for sucking blood; palpus one- or two-segmented, not conspicuous. Thorax rectangular-oval in dorsal outline, sometimes elongated. Scutellum sometimes with one to three pairs of apical spines. Wing well-developed (rarely absent); C not reaching beyond apex of wing; stronger veins crowded anteriorly; branches of R always meeting wing margin well before wing apex; Rs usually arising from R1 shortly before base of cell d or dm; R4 short, often indistinct or wanting; veins toward posterior margin of wing weak, tending to evanesce. Legs simple, at most with certain segrnents or tarsomeres inflated or elongated, never densely pilose; fore coxa never unusually elongated; pulvilli and empodia pad-like; tibial spurs only rarely developed. Abdomen composed of five to eight visible segments, with the remaining segments telescoped into visible ones or forming terminalia; outline from dorsal view varying from almost round to elongate-oval, sometimes petiolate or spatulate; vestiture moderate, never dense. Male terminalia usually small, rather simple; surstylus simple and ventral; aedeagus two- or three-pronged; cercus simple. Terminal female segments forming at most a simple weakly developed ovipositor. Larva elongated, flattened, composed of head capsule and 11 body segments; integument shagreened from deposit of calcium carbonate plates; head capsule well-developed, although broadly open posteroventrally, retracted more than half its length within thorax, but not functionally retractile; anterior exposed portion elongated and narrow except for ocular prominences, broadened posteriorly; mandible and maxilla more or less completely fused, operating vertically; maxillary palpus distinct; no free pharyngeal skeleton within head capsule; antenna usually located anterolaterally. Prothorax broader than head, with remainder of body either parallel-sided to near apex or attaining maximum width at abdominal segment 2; prominent lateral spiracles present on prothorax; lateral spiracles sometimes present on metathorax and on abdominal segments 1–6 or 1–7, but small and probably not functional; posterior spiracles functional, located in transverse cleft on terminal abdominal segment; prolegs lacking, although ventral hooks sometimes present, especially on penultimate or antepenultimate segment, or both. Pupation occurring within last larval integument.

<==Stratiomyidae [Stratiomyiidae, Stratiomyriidae]W09
    |--+--Parhadrestia [Parhadrestiinae]GC99
    |  `--Cretaceogaster Teskey 1971GC99
    |       `--*C. pygmaeus Teskey 1971GC99
    `--+--PachygastrinaeGC99
       |--ChiromyzinaeGC99
       |    |--Chiromyza vittataW09
       |    |--Boreoides subulatusCM91
       |    `--InopusJ81 [incl. AltermetoponiaCM74]
       |         `--I. rubriceps (Macquart 1847)H82 [=Altermetoponia rubricepsCM70]
       `--BeridinaeGC99
            |--AllognostaJ81
            |--Actina viridisJ81
            |--ArcuavenaW09
            |--Heteracanthia ruficornisW09
            |--BeridellaW09
            |--BerismyiaW09
            |--ParaberismyiaW09
            |--OplachanthaW09
            `--Beris Latreille 1802L02
                 |--*B. sexdentata [=Stratiomys sexdentata]L02
                 |--B. annuliferaJ81
                 |--B. clavipes [=Xylophagus (Beris) clavipes]G20
                 |--B. fuscipesW09
                 `--B. nigritarsisR26

Stratiomyidae incertae sedis:
  Barbiellinia Bezzi 1922K03
    `--*B. hirta Bezzi 1922K03
  Montsecia martinezdelclosiGE05
  Syndipnomyia auricinctaC91
  LysozusW09
  PedinoceraW09
  Exaireta spinigerCM91
  Neoexaireta spinigeraCM70
  EvazaO98
  SaldubellaO98
  Geosargus [Geosarginae]RD77
  Chrysochlorina [Chrysochlorininae]W09
    |--C. hateriusW09
    `--C. quadrilineataJ81
  Hermetiinae [Hermetiini]W09
    |--Chaetohermetia apicalisW09
    `--HermetiaW09
         |--H. albitarsisW09
         |--H. flavipesW09
         `--H. illucens [=Xylophagus (Hermetia) illucens]G20
  StratiomyinaeW09
    |--StratiomyiniW09
    |--OxyceriniW09
    `--Prosopochrysini [Myxosargini]W09
         |--Nothomyia parvicornisW09
         `--MyxosargusW09
              |--M. knowltoniW09
              `--M. nigricornisW09
  RaphiocerinaeW09
    |--Raphiocera armataW09
    |--Analcoceroides longicornisW09
    |--Brachythrix dileucostigmaW09
    |--Anisoscapus chlorovittatusW09
    |--Neanalcocerus hortulanusW09
    |--Phanerozus pampinusW09
    |--Heptozus hansoniW09
    |--Dolichothrix melanothoraxW09
    `--Histiodroma caloptera [=Raphiocera caloptera]W09
  NemotelinaeW09
    |--Akronia frontosaJ81
    |--BrachycaraW09
    |    |--B. maculataW09
    |    `--B. slossonaeW09
    `--NemotelusW09
         |--N. albirostrisW09
         |--N. bifasciatusL49
         |--N. canadensisW09
         |--N. (Camptopelta) glaberW09
         |--N. kansensisJ81
         |--N. longirostrisL49
         |--N. pantherinus (Linnaeus 1758)L49, L58 [=Musca pantherinaL49; incl. N. marginatusL49]
         |--N. signatusK01
         |--N. trinotatusE66
         |--N. uliginosusL49
         |--N. variusK01
         `--N. zichyi Kertész 1901K01
  SarginaeW09
  ClitellariinaeW09
  CacosisP92
  HermetiellaP92
  Eulalia evansiE66
  Nemotela punctataR26
  Vappo aterR26 [=Sargus (Vappo) aterG20]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM74] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1974. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 91–96. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E66] Evans, H. E. 1966. The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GC99] Grimaldi, D., & J. Cumming. 1999. Brachyceran Diptera in Cretaceous ambers and Mesozoic diversification of the Eremoneura. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 239: 1–124.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1–52.

[J81] James, M. T. 1981. Stratiomyidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 497–511. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis revised 10th ed. vol. 1. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L49] Lucas, H. 1849. Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du gouvernement et avec le concours d’une commission académique. Sciences physiques. Zoologie. II. Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. Troisième partie. Insectes (suite). Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[W09] Woodley, N. E. 2009. Stratiomyidae (soldier flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 521–549. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *