Strephocladina

Life restoration of Synomaloptila longipennis, from Rasnitsyn (2002).

Belongs within: Polyneoptera.

The Strephocladina are a group of insects known from the Middle Carboniferous to Late Permian. They may have been specialised for feeding on plant seeds and ovules.

Characters (from Rasnitsyn 2002): Body relatively large and heavy; head long; wings often polyneurous, rest position either roof-like or horizontal.

<==Strephocladina
    |--Synomaloptila [Synomaloptilidae]R02
    |    `--S. longipennisR02
    `--+--Hypermegethes [Hypermegethidae]R02
       |--Permarrhaphidae [Strephoneuridae]R02
       |    |--Strephoneura robustaR02
       |    |--Pseudoedischia berthaudiR02
       |    `--Permarrhaphus venosusR02
       `--Anthracoptilidae [Strephocladidae]R02
            |--Mycteroptila armipotensR02
            |--Strephocladus Scudder 1885NR13
            |    `--S. subtilisR02
            |--Anthracoptilus Lameere 1917NR13
            |    `--A. perrieriR02
            |--Ischnoneurona Handlirsch 1919R02, BN05
            |    `--*I. delicatula (Brongniart 1893) [=Ischnoneura delicatula]BN05
            `--MesoptilusR02
                 |--M. dolloiR02
                 |--M. fayolianusR02
                 `--M. sellardsiR02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BN05] Béthoux, O., & A. Nel. 2005. Some Palaeozoic ‘Protorthoptera’ are ‘ancestral’ orthopteroids: major wing braces as clues to a new split among the ‘Protorthoptera’ (Insecta). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 2 (4): 285–309.

[NR13] Nel, A., P. Roques, P. Nel, A. A. Prokin, T. Bourgoin, J. Prokop, J. Szwedo, D. Azar, L. Desutter-Grandcolas, T. Wappler, R. Garrouste, D. Coty, D. Huang, M. S. Engel & A. G. Kirejtshuk. 2013. The earliest known holometabolous insects. Nature 503: 257–261.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Cohors Cimiciformes Laicharting, 1781. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 104–115. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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