Streptostele musaecola, from D. G. Robinson et al.

Belongs within: Achatinina.
Contains: Gulella, Ptychotrema.

The Streptaxidae are a nearly pantropical family of carnivorous snails (though absent from the native fauna of Australia).

Characters (from Tillier 1989): Buccal mass very long. Gastric crop cylindrical; gastric pouch may be dedifferentiated; intestine short. Kidney very short, internally homogeneous in morphology. Ureteric tube closed as far as pneumostome. Cerebral commissure short. Cerebropedal connectives medium and subequal in length. Pleural ganglia close to pedal ganglia. Visceral ganglion median, in contact with both parietal ganglia, from which it is, however, distinct. Pleuro-parietal connectives longer than in any other family of Stylommatophora.

<==Streptaxidae [Streptaxacea]
    |--Odontartemon Pfeiffer 1856 [Odontartemoninae]BR05
    |    `--*O. dejecta (Petit de la Saussaye 1842) [=Helix dejecta]BR17
    |--Orthogibbinae [Orthogibbidae]BR05
    |    |--Orthogibbus Germain 1919BR05
    |    |    `--*O. modiolus (Férussac 1821) [=Helix modiolus]BR17
    |    |--Gibbus Montfort 1810 [Gibbinae]BR05
    |    |    `--*G. lyonneti Montfort 1810BR17
    |    `--Gonidomus Swainson 1840 [Gonidominae]BR05
    |         `--*G. pagoda (Lesson 1831) [=Pupa pagoda]BR17
    |    |--Artemon Beck 1837 [Artemonidae]BR05
    |    |    `--*A. candidum (Spix 1827) [=Solarium candidum]BR17
    |    `--Streptaxis Gray 1837BR05
    |         |--*S. contusus (Férussac 1821) [=Helix contusa]BR17
    |         |--S. deformisG79
    |         |--S. hanleyanusTC89
    |         |--S. obtususTC89
    |         `--S. sankeyanusTC89
    |--Enneinae [Enneidae, Ptychotrematinae]BR17
    |    |--PtychotremaBR05
    |    `--Streptostele Dohrn 1866 [Streptostelidae]BR05
    |         |--*S. (Streptostele) fastigiata (Morelet 1848) [=Bulimus fastigiatus]BR17
    |         |--S. alluaudiPB27
    |         |--S. bacillumPB27
    |         |--S. bequaertiPB27
    |         |--S. centralisPB27
    |         |    |--S. c. centralisPB27
    |         |    `--S. c. colobaPB27
    |         |--S. congorisPB27
    |         |--S. dautzenbergiPB27
    |         |--S. elegansPB27
    |         |--S. (Tomostele) musaecola (Morelet 1860) [=Achatina musaecola]S88
    |         |--s. streptosteloidesPB27
    |         |--S. teresPB27
    |         `--S. zambiensisPB27
    `--GonaxisV07 [MarconiinaeBR05]
         |  i. s.: G. burungaensisPB27
         |         G. cavalliiPB27
         |           |--G. c. cavalliiPB27
         |           `--G. c. ituriensisPB27
         |         G. craveni (Smith 1880)V07
         |         G. iridescensPB27
         |           |--G. i. iridescensPB27
         |           `--G. i. curtaPB27
         |         G. kibweziensisH91
         |         G. micansPB27
         |         G. mikenoensisPB27
         |         G. montisnimbae Binder 1960TMT96
         |         G. quadrilateralisH91
         |         G. vulcaniPB27
         `--G. (Marconia Bourguignat 1889)V07, BR05
              |--*Marconia’ lata (Smith 1880) [=Ennea lata]BR17
              |    |--M. l. lataPB27
              |    `--M. l. ruwenzoriensisPB27
              |--‘Marconia’ gaudioniPB27
              |--G. (M.) gravieri (Germain 1907)V07
              |--G. (M.) kivuensis (Preston 1913)V07
              |--‘Marconia’ latulaPB27
              `--G. (M.) vitrea (Morelet 1868) [=Ennea vitrea]V07
Streptaxidae incertae sedis:
  Natalina caffra (Férussac 1821)V07
    |--E. affinisK64
    `--E. obesa [incl. E. obesa var. bulimiformis]K64
    |--V. bequaertianaPB27
    |--V. rutshuruensisPB27
    `--V. subvaricosaPB27
         |--V. s. subvaricosaPB27
         `--V. s. majorPB27
  Eoplicadomus austriaca Hrubesch 1965TTE93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BP90] Burch, J. B., & T. A. Pearce. 1990. Terrestrial Gastropoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 201–309. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[FGN07] Fontaine, B., O. Gargominy & E. Neubert. 2007. Land snail diversity of the savanna/forest mosaic in Lopé National Park, Gabon. Malacologia 49 (2): 313–338.

[G79] Gibbons, J. S. 1879. Notes on the habits and distribution, &c., of certain W. Indian Pulmonifera. Journal of Conchology 2: 129–134.

[H91] Howarth, F. G. 1991. Environmental impacts of classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 485–509.

[K64] Krauss, N. L. H. 1964. Investigations on biological control of giant African (Achatina fulica) and other land snails. Nautilus 78 (1): 21–27.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[S88] Solem, A. 1988. Non-camaenid land snails of the Kimberley and Northern Territory, Australia. I. Systematics, affinities and ranges. Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 455–604.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII.—Molluschi terrestri e d’acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 295–359.

Tillier, S. 1989. Comparative morphology, phylogeny and classification of land snails and slugs (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Stylommatophora). Malacologia 30 (1–2): 1–303.

[TMT96] Tillier, S., M. Masselot & A. Tillier. 1996. Phylogenetic relationships of the pulmonate gastropods from rRNA sequences, and tempo and age of the stylommatophoran radiation. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 267–284. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[V07] Verdcourt, B. 2007. Miscellaneous notes on tropical African non-marine Mollusca. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 99: 189–197.

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