Strobilanthes

Persian shield Strobilanthes dyerianus, copyright Kristine Paulus.

Belongs within: Acanthoideae.

Strobilanthes is a diverse genus of flowering plants, mostly herbs and shrubs, found in tropical regions of Asia. Though some representatives are significant components of the shrub layer of hill forest, species delimitation remains a challenge (Wood & Scotland 2009).

Characters (from Flora of China): Herbs, subshrubs, shrubs, or rarely small trees, isophyllous or weakly to strongly anisophyllous, woody species commonly pliestesial (living for several years then dying after flowering and fruiting). Stems and branches usually 4-angled, often sulcate, basally becoming woody and hollow with age. Leaves opposite, petiolate or sessile; leaf blade adaxially usually with prominent linear cystoliths and sometimes also abaxially, margin variously dentate, serrate, crenate, undulate, or entire. Inflorescences axillary and/or terminal, bracteate heads, headlike clusters, spikes (sometimes distinctly secund), or less commonly of pedicellate flowers forming an open panicle; sterile bracts usually resembling reduced leaves and often present in compound inflorescences; floral bracts usually different from leaves, persistent or caducous as flowers open, very variable in size and shape, sometimes of two types with basal sterile bracts (outermost bracts in a capitate inflorescence) differing from inner or apical fertile ones; bracteoles 2 per pedicel, usually small, sometimes absent. Calyx usually 5-lobed to base, commonly accrescent in fruit; lobes equal or with middle one distinctly longer than others, sometimes partially fused to form a bipartite or tripartite calyx. Corolla nearly always bluish, rarely white, yellow, or pink, tubular or funnel-shaped, inside usually glabrous apart from trichomes retaining style; tube either gradually widened from base or narrowly cylindric and then abruptly widened, campanulate or gibbous; limb 5-lobed; lobes usually ovate, equal or subequal, spreading, contorted in bud. Stamens usually 4 and didynamous (rarely 2, 2 fertile with 2 staminodes, or 4 fertile with a central staminode), basally monadelphous; usually 2 filaments distinctly longer than other 2; anthers included or exserted, bithecous; thecae oblong or subspherical, parallel, erect or incurved, glabrous, basally muticous, rarely with connective extended to a mucronate tip; pollen spherical or ellipsoid, echinulate and/or variously ribbed, usually tricolporate. Ovary oblong to obovoid, 2-locular, with 2(–8) ovules per locule; style filiform, long, slender, simple, sometimes persistent after corolla falls, retained in place by trichomes on one side of corolla tube; stigma 2-cleft with one branch longer. Capsule characteristically oblong to narrowly obovoid but sometimes fusiform to narrowly ellipsoid, (2–)4(–16)-seeded; retinacula strong, curved. Seeds usually ovate or orbicular in outline and lenticular by being flattened, usually pubescent with appressed mucilaginous trichomes which become spreading when wetted, trichomes caducous in a very few species with seed glabrescent; areola usually very small but occasionally extending as a glabrous area over much of seed surface.

<==StrobilanthesWS09 (see below for synonymy)
    |--S. accrescensWS09
    |--S. affinis [=Tarphochlamys affinis]WS09
    |--S. apoensis (Elmer) Merr. 1923 (see below for synonymy)WS09
    |--S. assimulata [=Psacadopaepale assimulata]WS09
    |--S. atropurpureaWS09
    |--S. auriculataWS09 [=Perilepta auriculataM72]
    |--S. autapomorphaWS09
    |--S. axillifloraWS09
    |--S. barisanensis (Bremek.) Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009 (see below for synonymy)WS09
    |--S. bilabiata Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009WS09
    |--S. borii Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009WS09
    |--S. calcicolaWS09
    |--S. calycinaSV00
    |--S. candidaWS09
    |--S. capitataWS09
    |--S. celebica (Bremek.) Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009 (see below for synonymy)WS09
    |--S. cernuusR44
    |--S. chaffonjoniiSV00
    |--S. chrysodelta Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009WS09
    |--S. consanguineaSV00
    |--S. crispaWS09
    |--S. cruciata (Bremek.) Terao 1980 [=Tetragoga cruciata Bremek. 1944; incl. T. nagaensis Bremek. 1944]WS09
    |--S. cuneataWS09
    |--S. cusia [=Baphiacanthus cusia]WS09
    |--S. cuspidatusVD03c
    |--S. decipiensWS09
    |--S. diandra (Nees) Alston 1931 [=Stenosiphonium diandrum Nees 1847, Str. diandrus, Str. exareolatus Clarke 1884]VA06
    |--S. diclipteroidesR44
    |--S. disparifolia Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009WS09
    |--S. dupeni Bedd. ex Clarke 1884 [incl. *Kanjarum palghatense Ramamurthy 1971]VD03b
    |--S. dyerianusSV00
    |--S. echinataWS09
    |--S. erecta [incl. S. orbicularis]WS09
    |--S. exsertus Clarke 1884 [=Stenosiphonium zeylanicum Anderson 1867]VD03a
    |--S. filiformisWS09
    |--S. flexicaulisWS09
    |--S. fragrans Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009WS09
    |--S. fusca Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009WS09
    |--S. gardnerianaVA06
    |--S. gigantoidesWS09
    |--S. glabrataWS09
    |--S. glomerataWS09
    |--‘Pseudaechmanthera’ glutinosaSS72
    |--S. gossypina Anderson 1867WS09
    |--S. helicoidesVA06
    |--S. henryi [=Paragutzlaffia henryi]WS09
    |--S. hookeriSV00
    |--S. hosseiWS09
    |--S. humilisVA06
    |--S. hypomallaWS09
    |--S. inflataWS09
    |--S. insularisWS09
    |--S. involucrataWS09
    |--S. isophyllusB00
    |--S. jeyporensisVA06
    |--S. kjellbergii Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009 (see below for synonymy)WS09
    |--S. koordersiiWS09
    |--S. kunthianaWS09
    |--S. labordeiWS09
    |--S. lamiifoliaWS09
    |--S. lanatus [incl. S. gossypinus]VD03c
    |--S. lancifoliaSV00
    |--S. lanyuensisWS09
    |--S. lawsoni Gamble 1923 [=Phlebophyllum lawsoni (Gamble) Bremekamp 1944; incl. S. pushpangadanii Kumar et al. 2002]VD03c
    |--S. longipedunculata Terao ex Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009WS09
    |--S. longistaminea Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009WS09
    |--S. luridaSV00
    |--S. maculataSV00
    |--S. mastersiiWS09
    |--S. microcarpaWS09
    |--S. mogokensisWS09
    |--S. multangulaWS09
    |--S. muratae Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009WS09
    |--S. neilgherrensisVD05
    |--S. orientalis Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009WS09
    |--S. panichangaWS09
    |--S. paniculiformisWS09
    |--S. parvifolia Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009WS09
    |--S. pentstemonoidesWS09
    |--S. persicifolia (Lindl.) Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009 (see below for synonymy)WS09
    |    |--S. p. f. persicifoliaWS09
    |    `--S. p. f. isophylla (Nees) Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009 (see below for synonymy)WS09
    |--S. pterygorrhachisWS09
    |--S. pulneyensis Clarke in Hooker 1884 (see below for synonymy)VD05
    |--S. pusilla Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009WS09
    |--S. ramulosa Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009WS09
    |--S. refractaWS09
    |--S. renschiaeWS09
    |--S. rhamnifoliaSV00
    |--S. rhombifoliaWS09
    |--S. rufescensWS09
    |--S. rufopauperaWS09
    |--S. sabinianaWS09
    |--S. schomburgkii (Craib) Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009 (see below for synonymy)WS09
    |--S. sessilisVD03b
    |--S. simonsii Anderson 1867WS09
    |--S. simplexWS09
    |--S. stenodonWS09
    |--S. stramineaWS09
    |--S. sulawesiana Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009 (see below for synonymy)WS09
    |--S. tanakae Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009WS09
    |--S. tashiroiWS09
    |--S. teraoiWS09
    |--S. tetracanthaWS09
    |--S. tibeticaWS09
    |--S. tomentosa (Nees) Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009 (see below for synonymy)WS09
    |--S. trichantha Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009WS09
    |--S. urceolarisWS09
    |--S. urophyllaWS09
    |--S. vallicolaWS09
    |--S. walkeriSV00
    |--S. warburgiiWS09
    |--S. wardiana Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009WS09
    |--S. wilsoniiWS09
    |--S. winckeliiWS09
    |--S. zenkerianaWS09
    `--S. zeylanicaWS09

StrobilanthesWS09 [incl. AdenacanthusSV00, AdenostachyaSV00, BaphiacanthusWS09, ButeraeaSV00, CtgenopaepaleSV00, DidyplosandraSV00, DiflugossaSV00, DitrichospermumSV00, DossiflugaSV00, EchinopaepaleWS09, EndopogonSV00, EriostrobilusSV00, GutzlaffiaWS09, GymapsisSV00, HymenochlaenaSV00, Kanjarum Ramamurthy 1971VD03b, KjellbergiaSV00, LamiacanthusSV00, LarseniaSV00, LeptacanthusWS09, LissospermumSV00, ListrobanthesSV00, MackenzieaSV00, MicrostrobilusSV00, NilgirianthusSV00, PachystrobilusSV00, ParachampionellaSV00, ParagoldfussiaSV00, ParagutzlaffiaWS09, ParastrobilanthesSV00, ParasympagisSV00, PerileptaSV00, Phlebophyllum Nees 1832SV00, C49, PleocaulusSV00, PsacadopaepaleWS09, PseudaechmantheraSV00, PseudostenosiphoniumWS09, PteroptychiaSV00, PyrrothrixSV00, SemnostachyaSV00, SemnothyrsusSV00, SinthroblastesSV00, SupushpaSV00, SympagisSV00, TaeniandraSV00, TarphochlamysWS09, TetraglochidiumSV00, TetragogaSV00, TetragomphaSV00, ThelepaepaleSV00, TriaenacanthusSV00, XanthostachyaSV00]

Strobilanthes apoensis (Elmer) Merr. 1923 [=Hypoestes apoensis Elmer 1915, Goldfussia apoensis (Elmer) Bremek. 1944; incl. Strobilanthes boholensis Merr. 1926, Echinopaepale javanica Bremek. 1944, Hypoestes sibulanensis Elmer 1915, Strobilanthes sibulanensis (Elmer) Merr. 1926]WS09

Strobilanthes barisanensis (Bremek.) Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009 [=Paragoldfussia barisanensis Bremek. 1944; incl. P. caroensis Bremek. 1944]WS09

Strobilanthes celebica (Bremek.) Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009 [=Sericocalyx celebicus Bremek. 1944, Se. celebicus var. caudatus Bremek 1944; incl. Se. celebicus var. calcitrapa Bremek. 1944]WS09

Strobilanthes kjellbergii Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009 [=Kjellbergia celebica Bremek. 1948 non S. celebica (Bremek.) Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009]WS09

Strobilanthes persicifolia (Lindl.) Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009 [=Ruellia persicifolia Lindl. 1826; incl. R. anisophylla Loddiges 1826, Goldfussia anisophylla (Loddiges) Nees 1832, Strobilanthes anisophylla (Loddiges) Anderson 1865]WS09

Strobilanthes persicifolia f. isophylla (Nees) Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009 [=Goldfussia isophylla Nees 1832, S. anisophylla f. isophylla (Nees) Wood 1994, S. isophylla (Nees) Anderson 1865]WS09

Strobilanthes pulneyensis Clarke in Hooker 1884 [=Xenacanthus pulneyensis (Clarke) Bremekamp 1944; incl. S. circarensis Gamble 1923, Nilgirianthus circarensis (Gamble) Bremekamp 1944]VD05

Strobilanthes schomburgkii (Craib) Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009 [=Hemigraphis schomburgkii Craib 1911, Sericocalyx schomburgkii (Craib) Bremek. 1944]WS09

Strobilanthes sulawesiana Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009 [=Sericocalyx collina Bremekamp 1948 non Strobilanthes collina Nees 1832]WS09

Strobilanthes tomentosa (Nees) Wood in Wood & Scotland 2009 [=Aechmanthera tomentosa Nees in Wallich 1832, A. wallichii Nees 1847 (nom. illeg.); incl. Strobilanthes blinii Lév. 1913, S. bodinieri Lév. 1913, S. cavaleriei Lév. 1913, Aechmanthera claudiae Bernardi 1963, A. wallichii var. gossypina subvar. fomentaria Nees 1847 (nom. illeg.), Ruellia gossypina Wall. 1830 non Strobilanthes gossypina Anderson 1867, A. gossypina (Wall.) Nees 1832, A. leiosperma Clarke 1884, A. wallichii var. gossypina subvar. leuconeura Nees 1847, A. tomentosa var. wallichii Clarke 1884 (nom. illeg.) non A. wallichii Nees 1847]WS09

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C49] Crookes, M. W. 1949. A revised and annotated list of New Zealand Filicinae. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 209–225.

[M72] Mitra, S. N. 1972. Observations on the vegetation of the Upper Damodar catchment area. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (1): 17–25.

[R44] Rayment, T. 1944. A critical revision of species in the zonata group of Anthophora by new characters (part I). Dobutu Gaku—Iho 1 (1): 1–33.

[SV00] Scotland, R. W., & K. Vollesen. 2000. Classification of Acanthaceae. Kew Bulletin 55 (3): 513–589.

[SS72] Singh, V., & H. Singh. 1972. A contribution to the flora of Gangolihat block in Pithoragarh District. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (2): 352–368.

[VA06] Venu, P., & W. D. Albertson. 2006. The identity of Stenosiphonium wrightii Bremek. (Acanthaceae). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48: 211–216.

[VD03a] Venu, P., & P. Daniel. 2003a. Is Hemigraphis venosa C.B. Clarke (Acanthaceae) extinct? Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 91–96.

[VD03b] Venu, P., & P. Daniel. 2003b. What is Kanjarum palghatense Ramam. (Acanthaceae)? Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 97–104.

[VD03c] Venu, P., & P. Daniel. 2003c. How distinct is Strobilanthes pushpangadanii E.S.S. Kumar & Al. from S. lawsoni Gamble (Acanthaceae)? Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 105–110.

[VD05] Venu, P., & P. Daniel. 2005. Strobilanthes circarensis Gamble, a synonym of S. pulneyensis C.B. Clarke (Acanthaceae). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 87–92.

[WS09] Wood, J. R. I., & R. W. Scotland. 2009. New and little-known species of Strobilanthes (Acanthaceae) from India and south east Asia. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 3–47.

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