Fighting conch Strombus pugilis, copyright H. Zell.

Belongs within: Strombidae.

Strombus, the conches, is a pantropical genus of large marine gastropods characterised by a shell with a large, flaring outer lip bearing a U-shaped notch near the anterior end. Members of the subgenus Dolomena are small to moderate-sized with an expanded, flaring lip and deep stromboid notch (Wilson 1993).

Characters (from Wilson 1993): Outer lip thick, flaring, with deep U-shaped notch anteriorly; spire whorls varicose; operculum horny, elongate, pointed, serrate on one side.

<==Strombus Linnaeus 1758 [Strombinae, Strombini]BR05
    |--*S. (Strombus) pugilis Linnaeus 1758BR17
    |--S. (Dolomena Iredale 1931)WG71
    |    |--S. (D.) plicatus (Röding 1798)WG71 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--S. p. plicatusW93
    |    |    `--S. (*D.) p. pulchellus Reeve 1851W93
    |    |--S. (D.) dilatatus Swainson 1821 [incl. S. orosminus Duclos 1844]W93
    |    |    |--S. d. dilatatusWG71
    |    |    `--S. d. swainsoni Reeve 1850WG71
    |    `--S. (D.) variabilis Swainson 1820 [incl. S. lituratus Menke 1829]W93
    |--S. (Doxander Iredale 1931)WG71
    |    |--S. (*D.) vittatus Linnaeus 1758W93
    |    `--S. (D.) campbelli Griffith & Pidgeon 1834WG71 [=S. vittatus campbelliW93; incl. Alaba sulcataH08]
    |--S. (Euprotomus Gill 1870)WG71
    |    |--S. (*E.) aurisdianae Linnaeus 1758 (see below for synonymy)W93
    |    |--S. (E.) bulla (Röding 1798) [incl. S. guttatus Martini in Kiener 1843, S. laevis Perry 1811]W93
    |    `--S. (E.) vomer Röding 1798 (see below for synonymy)W93
    |         |--S. v. vomerWG71
    |         `--S. v. iredalei Abbott 1960WG71
    |--S. (Gibberulus Jousseaume 1888)WG71
    |    `--S. (*G.) gibberulus Linnaeus 1758W93
    |         |--S. g. gibberulusWG71
    |         `--S. g. gibbosus Röding 1798WG71
    |--S. (Labiostrombus Oostingh 1925) [incl. Gallinula Klein in Hermannsen 1847 non Brisson 1760]W93
    |    `--S. (*L.) epidromis Linnaeus 1758 [incl. S. expansa Martini in Tryon 1885]W93
    `--S. (Lentigo Jousseaume 1886)W93
         |--S. (*L.) lentiginosus Linnaeus 1758 [incl. S. rana Röding 1798]W93
         `--S. (L.) pipus (Röding 1798) (see below for synonymy)W93

Strombus incertae sedis:
  S. alatus Gmelin 1790S11 [=S. pugilis alatusB68]
  S. australis Gray 1827H09
  S. belutschiensisM01
  S. bituberculatus [incl. S. peruvianus]C64
  S. buboniusP75
  S. canalis Coquebert & Brongniart 1793CB93
  S. cancellatus Valenciennes 1833C64
  S. ‘cancellatus’ Pease 1861 non Valenciennes 1833K65
  S. chiragra Linnaeus 1758L58
  S. crispatus Sowerby 1842S42
  S. fissura Coquebert & Brongniart 1793CB93
  S. galeatusC64
  S. gallus Linnaeus 1758L58
  S. gigas Linnaeus 1758L58 [incl. S. goliathG79]
  S. gracilior Sowerby 1825S11
  S. granulatusC64
  S. lucifer Linnaeus 1758L58
  S. marginatus Linnaeus 1758L58
  S. melanostomus Swainson 1822H09
  S. millepeda Linnaeus 1758L58
  S. preoccupatus Finlay 1927 [=S. spinosus Martin 1899 non Linnaeus 1767]F27
  S. raninusKB99
  S. scorpius Linnaeus 1758L58
  S. sibbaldii Sowerby 1842H09
  S. spinosus Linnaeus 1767F27

Strombus (Dolomena) plicatus (Röding 1798)WG71 [=Lambis plicataH09, S. columba (nom. inv.)H08; incl. S. malekulensis Abrard 1946W93]

Strombus (*Euprotomus) aurisdianae Linnaeus 1758 [incl. S. aurisdianae aratrum Röding 1798, S. buris Röding 1798, S. chrysostomus Kuroda 1942, S. lamarckii Gray 1842, S. stiva Röding 1798]W93

Strombus (Euprotomus) vomer Röding 1798 [incl. S. acutus Perry 1811, S. chemnitzii Pfeiffer 1840, S. donnellyi Iredale 1931, S. hirasei Kuroda 1942, S. novaezelandiae Chemnitz in Reeve 1842, S. pacificus Swainson 1821, S. zelandiae Gray 1826]W93

Strombus (Lentigo) pipus (Röding 1798) [incl. S. adustus Swainson in Reeve 1851, S. exustus Swainson 1822, S. papilio Chemnitz in Dillwyn 1817]W93

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

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[CB93] Coquebert, R., & A. Brongniart. 1793. Extrait d’un mémoire sur la formation de la coquille du Strombus fissurella, et sur deux espèces analogues à celle-ci. Bulletin de la Société Philomatique, a ses Correspondans 25: 1–2.

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[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

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[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[K65] Kay, E. A. 1965. Marine molluscs in the Cuming collection, British Museum (Natural History) described by William Harper Pease. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Zoology Supplement 1: 1–96, 14 pls.

[KB99] Kiel, S., & K. Bandel. 1999. The Pugnellidae, a new stromboidean family (Gastropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 73 (1-2): 47–58.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M01] Melville, J. C. 1901. A few further remarks upon the Erythrean molluscan fauna, with descriptions of seven species from Aden, in the collection of Commander E. R. Shopland, R.I.M. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 550–556.

[P75] Por, F. D. 1975. Pleistocene pulsation and preadaptation of biotas in Mediterranean seas: consequences for Lessepsian migration. Systematic Zoology 24 (1): 72–78.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[S42] Sowerby, G. B., Jr. 1842. Descriptions of two new species of shells belonging to the genus Strombus, collected by H. Cuming, Esq. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 143–144.

[W93] Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells vol. 1. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part One. Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

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