Strophomenata

 Triplesia insularis, copyright Mare Isakar.

Belongs within: Rhynchonelliformea.
Contains: Strophomenida, Productida, Clitambonitidina, Plectambonitoidea, Davidsonioidea.

The Orthotetida were a Palaeozoic lineage of strophomenate brachiopods that are first recorded from the Ordovician. The basal genus Tetraphalerella possesses uncored pseudopunctae composed of concentric shell folds and arranged in radial rows; such structures are absent in the Davidsoniacea and Triplesiidae (Dewing 2004).

<==Strophomenata
    |  i. s.: Cyphomenoidea juliaD04
    |         Biparetis paucirugosusD04
    |         Nasutimena fluctuosa (Billings 1860)D04
    |--+--StrophomenidaD04
    |  `--ProductidaD04
    |--BillingsellidaD04
    |    |--+--ClitambonitidinaD04
    |    |  `--PlectambonitoideaD04
    |    `--Billingsellidae [Billingsellacea, Billingselloidea]D04
    |         |--Cymbithyris Cooper 1952WW65
    |         |    `--*C. hami Cooper 1952WW65
    |         |--Eosotrematorthis Wang 1955WW65
    |         |    `--*E. sinensis Wang 1955WW65
    |         |--Xenorthis Ulrich & Cooper 1936WW65
    |         |    `--*X. stosei (Bassler 1919) [=Strophomena stosei]WW65
    |         |--Billingsella Hall & Clarke 1892WW65
    |         |    |--*B. pepina (Hall 1863) [=Orthis pepina]WW65
    |         |    |--B. coloradoensisC52
    |         |    |--B. corrugataC52
    |         |    |--B. destombesi Mergl 1983HB93
    |         |    |--B. lindstroemiW97
    |         |    |--B. perfecta Ulrich & Cooper 1936D04
    |         |    |--B. plicatellaL97
    |         |    `--B. rectangulata Cooper 1952C52
    |         `--Kozhuchinella Severgina 1967 [=Kozuchinella (l. c.)]L97
    |              `--*K. mariinica Severgina 1967 [=Kozuchinella (l. c.) mariinica]L97
    `--OrthotetidaD04
         |  i. s.: Apsocalymma shiellsiW97
         |--Tetraphalerella Wang 1949D04, M-WW65
         |    |--*T. cooperi Wang 1949M-WW65
         |    `--T. hecuba (Billings 1860)D04
         `--+--DavidsonioideaD04
            `--Triplesiidae [Tripleciinae, Triplesiacea, Triplesiida, Triplesiidina, Triplesiinae, Triplesioidea]D04
                 |--Brachymimulus Cockerell 1929 [=Mimulus Barrande 1879 nec Linnaeus 1753 (ICBN) nec Stimpson 1860]WW65
                 |    `--*B. perversus (Barrande 1879) [=*Mimulus perversus]WW65
                 |--Epacroplecia Williams 1962WW65
                 |    `--*E. grayiae (Davidson 1870) [=Triplesia grayiae]WW65
                 |--Onychotreta Ulrich & Cooper 1936WW65
                 |    `--*O. mesleri Ulrich & Cooper 1936WW65
                 |--Oxoplecia Wilson 1913 [incl. California Bassler 1915 (n. n.)]WW65
                 |    `--*O. calhouni Wilson 1913WW65
                 |--Plectotreta Ulrich & Cooper 1936WW65
                 |    `--*P. lindstroemi Ulrich & Cooper 1936WW65
                 |--Streptis Davidson 1881WW65
                 |    `--*S. grayi (Davidson 1848)WW65 [=Terebratula grayiWW65, Waldheimia grayiC64]
                 |--Onychoplecia Cooper 1956WW65
                 |    |--*O. brevirostris Cooper 1956WW65
                 |    `--O. kindlei Cooper 1956HB93
                 |--Bicuspina Havlíček 1950WW65
                 |    |--*B. cava (Barrande 1848) [=Orthis cava]WW65
                 |    `--B. spiriferoidesWW65
                 |--Cliftonia Foerste 1909 non Harvey 1859 (ICBN)WW65
                 |    |--*C. striata Foerste 1909WW65
                 |    `--C. bellulaWW65
                 `--Triplesia Hall 1859 [=Triplecia Hall & Clarke 1892; incl. Dicraniscus Meek 1872]WW65
                      |--*T. extans (Emmons 1842) [=Atrypa extans]WW65
                      |--T. anticostiensis Twenhofel 1928D04
                      |--T. insularisWW65
                      `--*Dicraniscus’ ortoni Meek 1872WW65

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C52] Cooper, G. A. 1952. New and unusual species of brachiopods from the Arbuckle Group in Oklahoma. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 117 (14): 1–35, 4 pls.

[D04] Dewing, K. 2004. Shell structure and its bearing on the phylogeny of Late Ordovician–Early Silurian strophomenoid brachiopods from Anticosti Island, Québec. Journal of Paleontology 78: 275–286.

[HB93] Harper, D. A. T., C. H. C. Brunton, L. R. M. Cocks, P. Copper, E. N. Doyle, A. L. Jeffrey, E. F. Owen, M. A. Parkes, L. E. Popov & C. D. Prosser. 1993. Brachiopoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 427–462. Chapman & Hall: London.

[L97] Laurie, J. R. 1997. Silicified Late Cambrian brachiopods from the Georgina Basin, western Queensland. Alcheringa 21: 179–189.

[M-WW65] Muir-Wood, H., & A. Williams. 1965. Strophomenida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 1 pp. H361–H521. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[W97] Williams, A. 1997. Shell structure. In: Kaesler, R. L. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda, Revised vol. 1. Introduction pp. 267–320. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[WW65] Williams, A., & A. D. Wright. 1965. Orthida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 1 pp. H299–H359. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

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