Stygnidae

Eutimesius simoni, copyright Arthur Anker.

Belongs within: Grassatores.
Contains: Stygnoplus, Protimesius, Stygnus.

The Stygnidae are a group of harvestmen from South America with a divided eye mound and a rectangular or subrectangular dorsal scute (Pinto-da-Rocha 1997).

Characters (from Pinto-da-Rocha 1997): Anterior margin of dorsal scute slightly elevated medially, with one projection on each corner, one projection external and one internal side of each chelicera. Eye mound divided in two. Cephalothorax almost as wide as abdomen (dorsal scute rectangular or almost rectangular). Coxa IV usually reaches groove III. Male legs III–IV usually tuberculate. Metatarsi III–IV with two ventroapical setae. Distitarsi I–II with three segments. Male chelicera usually swollen; segment I condyle-like or straight (only in males of Nomoclastinae). Pedipalpus long and thin or short and thick. Penis glans with dorsal process, occasionally absent. Colour usually brownish or dark-brown.

Stygnidae [Stignidae]
|  i. s.: Gaibulus Roewer 1943 K03
|           `–*G. schubarti Roewer 1943 K03
|–Nomoclastes Sørensen 1932 [Nomoclastinae] K03
|    |–*N. taedifer Sørensen 1932 K03
|    `–N. quasimodo Pinto-da-Rocha 1997 K03
|–Heterostygninae V-M04
|    |–Stygnoplus K03
|    |–Timesius Simon 1879 K03
|    |    `–*T. vesicularis (Gervais 1844) [=Stygnus vesicularis] K03
|    |–Innoxius Pinto-da-Rocha 1997 K03
|    |    `–*I. magnus (Caporiacco 1951) [=Stenostygnus magnus] K03
|    |–Minax Pinto-da-Rocha 1997 K03
|    |    `–*M. tetraspinosus Pinto-da-Rocha 1997 K03
|    |–Yapacana Pinto-da-Rocha 1997 K03
|    |    `–*Y. tibialis Pinto-da-Rocha 1997 K03
|    |–Stenostygnellus Roewer 1913 K03 [incl. Bunistygnellus Roewer 1917 K03, Bunistygnus KA-Z11]
|    |    |–*S. flavolimbatus Roewer 1913 (see below for synonymy) K03
|    |    `–S. macrochelis (Roewer 1917) (see below for synonymy) K03
|    |–Stygnidius Simon 1879 V-M04 [incl. Heterostygnus Roewer 1913 K03]
|    |    |–*S. inflatus (Guérin-Méneville 1843) (see below for synonymy) K03
|    |    |–S. guerinii Sørensen 1932 V-M04
|    |    `–S. yekwana Villarreal-M 2004 V-M04
|    `–Eutimesius Roewer 1913 (see below for synonymy) K03
|         |–*E. simoni Roewer 1913 [incl. *Xanthostygnus fractus Mello-Leitão 1949, E. miles Sørensen 1932] K03
|         |–E. albicinctus (Roewer 1915) [=*Hoplostygnus albicinctus, Holostygnus albienetus (l. c.)] K03
|         |–E. ephippiatus (Roewer 1915) [=*Dichobunistygnus ephippiatus] K03
|         `–E. ornatus (Roewer 1943) [=Bunistygnellus ornatus] K03
`–Stygninae [Ideostygninae, Phareinae] K09
|  i. s.: Protimesius K03
|         Stenostygnoides Roewer 1913 (see below for synonymy) K03
|           `–*S. cosmetitarsus Roewer 1913 (see below for synonymy) K03
|         Ortonia Wood 1869 K03
|           `–*O. ferox Wood 1869 (n. d.) [=Phareus ferox] K03
|         Actinostygnoides Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 K03
|           `–*A. carus Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 K03
|         Iguarassua Roewer 1943 K03
|           `–*I. schubarti Roewer 1943 K03
|         Kaapora Pinto-da-Rocha 1997 K03
|           `–*K. minutissimus (Roewer 1943) [=Nanophareus minutissimus] K03
|         Niceforoiellus Mello-Leitão 1941 K03
|           `–*N. assimilis Mello-Leitão 1941 K03
|         Paraphareus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
|           `–*P. tatei Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
|         Planophareus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
|           `–*P. pallidus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
|         Verrucastygnus Pinto-da-Rocha 1997 K03
|           `–*V. caliginosus (Pinto-da-Rocha 1990) [=Stenostygnoides caliginosus] K03
|         Metaphareus Roewer 1912 K03
|           |–*M. albimanus Roewer 1912 [=M. albimanum] K03
|           `–M. punctatus Roewer 1913 K03
|         Auranus Mello-Leitão 1941 K03
|           |–*A. parvus Mello-Leitão 1941 K03
|           `–A. hoeferscovitorum Pinto-da-Rocha 1997 K03
|–Ricstygnus Kury 2009 K09
|    `–*R. quineti Kury 2009 K09
|–Pickeliana Mello-Leitão 1932 K09, K03 [=Picheliana (l. c.) K03]
|    |–*P. pickeli Mello-Leitão 1932 [=Protimesius pickeli] K03
|    `–P. capito (Soares & Soares 1974) [=Protimesius capito] K03
|–+–Stygnus K09
|  `–Sickesia Soares 1979 K09
|       |–*S. helmuti Soares 1979 K03
|       `–S. usta (Mello-Leitão 1941) [=Diplostygnus ustus] K03
`–+–Phareus Simon 1879 K09 (see below for synonymy)
|    |–*P. raptator (Gervais 1844) (see below for synonymy) K03
|    `–P. antrophilus Villarreal Manzanilla & Rodríguez 2006 VMR06
`–Stenophareus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 VMDR07
|–*S. roraimus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
|–S. aonda Villarreal Manzanilla, DoNascimiento & Rodríguez 2007 VMDR07
`–S. guerreroi Villarreal Manzanilla, DoNascimiento & Rodríguez 2007 VMDR07

Eutimesius Roewer 1913 [incl. Dichobunistygnus Roewer 1915, Hoplostygnus Roewer 1915, Xanthostygnus Mello-Leitão 1949, Zmotus Simon in Sørensen 1932 (n. n.)] K03

Phareus Simon 1879 K09 [incl. Allophareus Roewer 1963 K03, Colomphareus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03, Liophareus Mello-Leitão 1940 K03]

*Phareus raptator (Gervais 1844) [=Goniosoma raptator; incl. *Liophareus mamillatus Mello-Leitão 1940, *Allophareus robustus Roewer 1963, *Colomphareus rugosus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943] K03

*Stenostygnellus flavolimbatus Roewer 1913 [incl. Bunistygnellus beebei Goodnight & Goodnight 1949, S. praetiosus Caporiacco 1951] K03

Stenostygnellus macrochelis (Roewer 1917) [=*Bunistygnellus macrochelis; incl. Stygnoplus marginalis Sørensen 1932] K03

Stenostygnoides Roewer 1913 [incl. Stenopharellus Roewer 1947, Stenophareus Roewer 1943 non Goodnight & Goodnight 1943] K03

*Stenostygnoides cosmetitarsus Roewer 1913 [incl. *Stenophareus gracilis Roewer 1943, *Stenopharellus gracilis, Stenostygnoides gracilis] K03

*Stygnidius inflatus (Guérin-Méneville 1843) [=Stygnus inflatus, Stignidius inflatus, Stygnoplus inflatus; incl. *Heterostygnus minutus Roewer 1913] K03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[K09] Kury, A. B. 2009. A new genus of Stygninae from a relictual rainforest in Ceará, northeastern Brazil (Opiliones, Laniatores, Stygnidae). Zootaxa 2057: 63–68.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the “Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)”. Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

[V-M04] Villarreal-M, O. 2004. Descripción de una nueva especie del género Stygnidius (Opiliones, Stygnidae) del Cerro Marahuaca, en al Amazonas venezolano. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 9: 15–18.

[VMDR07] Villarreal Manzanilla, O., C. DoNascimiento & C. J. Rodríguez. 2007. Two new species of the enigmatic genus Stenophareus (Opiliones: Laniatores: Stygnidae) from the Venezuelan Guiana Shield. Zootaxa 1471: 43–51.

[V-MR06] Villarreal-Manzanilla, O., & C. Rodríguez. 2006. Nuevos registros del género Phareus Simon, 1879 en Colombia, con la descripción de una nueva especie (Opiliones, Stygnidae). Boletín Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 38: 103–105.

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