Stygnidae

Eutimesius simoni, copyright Arthur Anker.

Belongs within: Gonyleptoidea.
Contains: Stygnoplus, Stygnus.

The Stygnidae are a group of harvestmen from South America with a divided eye mound and a rectangular or subrectangular dorsal scute (Pinto-da-Rocha 1997).

Protimesius is a genus of harvestmen found in northern South America.

Characters (from Pinto-da-Rocha 1997): Anterior margin of dorsal scute slightly elevated medially, with one projection on each corner, one projection external and one internal side of each chelicera. Eye mound divided in two. Cephalothorax almost as wide as abdomen (dorsal scute rectangular or almost rectangular). Coxa IV usually reaches groove III. Male legs III–IV usually tuberculate. Metatarsi III–IV with two ventroapical setae. Distitarsi I–II with three segments. Male chelicera usually swollen; segment I condyle-like or straight (only in males of Nomoclastinae). Pedipalpus long and thin or short and thick. Penis glans with dorsal process, occasionally absent. Colour usually brownish or dark-brown.

<==Stygnidae [Stignidae]
    |  i. s.: Gaibulus Roewer 1943K03
    |           `--*G. schubarti Roewer 1943K03
    |--HeterostygninaeV-M04
    |    |--StygnoplusK03
    |    |--Timesius Simon 1879K03
    |    |    `--*T. vesicularis (Gervais 1844) [=Stygnus vesicularis]K03
    |    |--Innoxius Pinto-da-Rocha 1997K03
    |    |    `--*I. magnus (Caporiacco 1951) [=Stenostygnus magnus]K03
    |    |--Minax Pinto-da-Rocha 1997K03
    |    |    `--*M. tetraspinosus Pinto-da-Rocha 1997K03
    |    |--Yapacana Pinto-da-Rocha 1997K03
    |    |    `--*Y. tibialis Pinto-da-Rocha 1997K03
    |    |--Stenostygnellus Roewer 1913K03 [incl. Bunistygnellus Roewer 1917K03, BunistygnusKA-Z11]
    |    |    |--*S. flavolimbatus Roewer 1913 (see below for synonymy)K03
    |    |    `--S. macrochelis (Roewer 1917) [=*Bunistygnellus macrochelis; incl. Stygnoplus marginalis Sørensen 1932]K03
    |    |--Stygnidius Simon 1879V-M04 [incl. Heterostygnus Roewer 1913K03]
    |    |    |--*S. inflatus (Gervais 1842)K03, KM20 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--S. guerinii Sørensen 1932V-M04
    |    |    `--S. yekwana Villarreal-M 2004V-M04
    |    `--Eutimesius Roewer 1913 (see below for synonymy)K03
    |         |--*E. simoni Roewer 1913 [incl. *Xanthostygnus fractus Mello-Leitão 1949, E. miles Sørensen 1932]K03
    |         |--E. albicinctus (Roewer 1915) [=*Hoplostygnus albicinctus, Holostygnus albienetus (l. c.)]K03
    |         |--E. ephippiatus (Roewer 1915) [=*Dichobunistygnus ephippiatus]K03
    |         `--E. ornatus (Roewer 1943) [=Bunistygnellus ornatus]K03
    `--Stygninae [Ideostygninae, Phareinae]K09
         |  i. s.: Protimesius Roewer 1913 [incl. Misetropius Soares 1978]K03
         |           |--*P. gracilis Roewer 1913K03
         |           |--P. albilineatus (Roewer 1957) [=Obidosus albilineatus]K03
         |           |--P. apiacas Pinto-da-Rocha 2000K03
         |           |--P. evelineae (Soares & Soares 1978) [=Ideostygnus evelineae]K03
         |           |--P. longipalpis (Roewer 1943) [=Pickeliana longipalpis, Pr. longipalpus]K03
         |           |--P. mendopticus (Soares 1978) [=*Misetropius mendopticus]K03
         |           |--P. palpalis (Roewer 1931) [=Fonteboatus palpalis]K03
         |           `--P. trocaraincola Pinto-da-Rocha 1997K03
         |         Stenostygnoides Roewer 1913 (see below for synonymy)K03
         |           `--*S. cosmetitarsus Roewer 1913 (see below for synonymy)K03
         |         Ortonia Wood 1869K03
         |           `--*O. ferox Wood 1869 (n. d.) [=Phareus ferox]K03
         |         Actinostygnoides Goodnight & Goodnight 1942K03
         |           `--*A. carus Goodnight & Goodnight 1942K03
         |         Iguarassua Roewer 1943K03
         |           `--*I. schubarti Roewer 1943K03
         |         Kaapora Pinto-da-Rocha 1997K03
         |           `--*K. minutissimus (Roewer 1943) [=Nanophareus minutissimus]K03
         |         Niceforoiellus Mello-Leitão 1941K03
         |           `--*N. assimilis Mello-Leitão 1941K03
         |         Paraphareus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943K03
         |           `--*P. tatei Goodnight & Goodnight 1943K03
         |         Planophareus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943K03
         |           `--*P. pallidus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943K03
         |         Verrucastygnus Pinto-da-Rocha 1997K03
         |           `--*V. caliginosus (Pinto-da-Rocha 1990) [=Stenostygnoides caliginosus]K03
         |         Metaphareus Roewer 1912K03
         |           |--*M. albimanus Roewer 1912 [=M. albimanum]K03
         |           `--M. punctatus Roewer 1913K03
         |         Auranus Mello-Leitão 1941K03
         |           |--*A. parvus Mello-Leitão 1941K03
         |           `--A. hoeferscovitorum Pinto-da-Rocha 1997K03
         |         Obidosus Roewer 1931K03 (see below for synonymy)
         |           |--*O. amplichelis Roewer 1931KM20 [=Protimesius amphichelisK03]
         |           |--‘Fonteboatus’ coxalis Roewer 1931KM20 [=Protimesius coxalisK03]
         |           `--*Ideostygnus’ laevis Sørensen 1932KM20 [=Pickeliana laevisK03, Protimesius laevisK03]
         |--Ricstygnus Kury 2009K09
         |    `--*R. quineti Kury 2009K09
         |--Pickeliana Mello-Leitão 1932K09, K03 [=Picheliana (l. c.)K03]
         |    |--*P. pickeli Mello-Leitão 1932 [=Protimesius pickeli]K03
         |    `--P. capito (Soares & Soares 1974) [=Protimesius capito]K03
         |--+--StygnusK09
         |  `--Sickesia Soares 1979K09
         |       |--*S. helmuti Soares 1979K03
         |       `--S. usta (Mello-Leitão 1941) [=Diplostygnus ustus]K03
         `--+--Phareus Simon 1879K09 (see below for synonymy)
            |    |--*P. raptator (Gervais 1844) (see below for synonymy)K03
            |    `--P. antrophilus Villarreal Manzanilla & Rodríguez 2006VMR06
            `--Stenophareus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943VMDR07
                 |--*S. roraimus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943K03
                 |--S. aonda Villarreal Manzanilla, DoNascimiento & Rodríguez 2007VMDR07
                 `--S. guerreroi Villarreal Manzanilla, DoNascimiento & Rodríguez 2007VMDR07

Eutimesius Roewer 1913 [incl. Dichobunistygnus Roewer 1915, Hoplostygnus Roewer 1915, Xanthostygnus Mello-Leitão 1949, Zmotus Simon in Sørensen 1932 (n. n.)]K03

Obidosus Roewer 1931K03 [incl. Fonteboatus Roewer 1931 (nom. inv.)KM20, Ideostygnus Sørensen in Henriksen 1932KM20]

Phareus Simon 1879K09 [incl. Allophareus Roewer 1963K03, Colomphareus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943K03, Liophareus Mello-Leitão 1940K03]

*Phareus raptator (Gervais 1844) [=Goniosoma raptator; incl. *Liophareus mamillatus Mello-Leitão 1940, *Allophareus robustus Roewer 1963, *Colomphareus rugosus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943]K03

*Stenostygnellus flavolimbatus Roewer 1913 [incl. Bunistygnellus beebei Goodnight & Goodnight 1949, S. praetiosus Caporiacco 1951]K03

Stenostygnoides Roewer 1913 [incl. Stenopharellus Roewer 1947, Stenophareus Roewer 1943 non Goodnight & Goodnight 1943]K03

*Stenostygnoides cosmetitarsus Roewer 1913 [incl. *Stenophareus gracilis Roewer 1943, *Stenopharellus gracilis, Stenostygnoides gracilis]K03

*Stygnidius inflatus (Gervais 1842)K03, KM20 [=Stygnus inflatusKM20, Stignidius inflatusK03, Stygnoplus inflatusK03; incl. *Heterostygnus minutus Roewer 1913K03]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[K09] Kury, A. B. 2009. A new genus of Stygninae from a relictual rainforest in Ceará, northeastern Brazil (Opiliones, Laniatores, Stygnidae). Zootaxa 2057: 63–68.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the “Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)”. Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

[KM20] Kury, A. B., A. C. Mendes, L. Cardoso, M. S. Kury & A. A. Granado. 2020. WCO-Lite: Online world catalogue of harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Version 1.0—Checklist of all valid nomina in Opiliones with authors and dates of publication up to 2018. Published by the author: Rio de Janeiro.

[V-M04] Villarreal-M, O. 2004. Descripción de una nueva especie del género Stygnidius (Opiliones, Stygnidae) del Cerro Marahuaca, en al Amazonas venezolano. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 9: 15–18.

[VMDR07] Villarreal Manzanilla, O., C. DoNascimiento & C. J. Rodríguez. 2007. Two new species of the enigmatic genus Stenophareus (Opiliones: Laniatores: Stygnidae) from the Venezuelan Guiana Shield. Zootaxa 1471: 43–51.

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