Coast beard-heath Cyathodes parviflora, copyright Stephen Bain.

Belongs within: Styphelioideae.

The Styphelieae are a group of ericaceous shrubs with fleshy fruits. In the Australasian genus Pentachondra, the fruits are divided into usually five separate pyrenes whereas fruits of most other genera are five-loculed with a bony endocarp. Cyathodes have flower pedicels bearing many, more or less persistent bracts and a corolla that is more or less glabrous on the upper surface whereas Leucopogon flowers have fewer, caducous bracts on the pedicel and a bearded upper surface on the corolla (Allan 1961). Styphelia bears flowers with anthers on long filaments that are well exserted from the corollar tube. Astroloma bears long, tubular flowers that usually bear tufts of hairs or ciliated scales inside the corolla.

Characters (from Kron et al. 2002): Shrubs. Leaves alternate, entire, with leaf base narrow and one to several longitudinal veins having abaxial fiber cap that contacts abaxial epidermis. Flowers in terminal or reduced axillary racemes; bracts several grading upward in size, or one, mostly small and persistent, sometimes leaflike and caducous; bracteoles 2. Flowers 5-merous. Calyx lobes ciliate, persistent; corolla sympetalous, cylindrical, the lobes straight, spreading or recurved, mostly valvate in bud, occasionally imbricate. Stamens 5, epipetalous; anthers monothecal, with or without appendages. Pollen in monads, sometimes in tetrads or shed as reduced tetrads with one or more cells aborting. Ovary 2–11-locular, each with single ovule, placentation apical, style not impressed. Fruit drupaceous and brightly coloured, sometimes splitting to release endocarp, with sometimes splits into separate pyrenes.

<==Styphelieae [Stenanthereae, Stypheliinae]
    |--Brachyloma daphnoidesKJ02
    |--Coleanthera myrtoidesKJ02, G04
    |--Conostephium pendulumKJ02, RL05
    |--Lissanthe strigosaKJ02
    |--Trochocarpa thymifoliaKJ02
    |--Pentachondra Br. 1810KJ02, A61
    |    `--P. pumila (Forster & Forster) Br. 1810 (see below for synonymy)A61
    |    |--M. rotatusC08
    |    `--M. urceolatus [incl. M. erubescens, M. medius]B96
    |    |--A. aggregataKJ02
    |    |--A. hamptoniiGMD11
    |    `--A. patulaG04
    |    |--M. ellipticaMM09
    |    |--M. glaucaKJ02
    |    |--M. leucanthaG04
    |    |--M. oreophilaB00
    |    `--M. scopariaKJ02
    |    |--A. baxteriGK00
    |    |--A. cataphractumOS04
    |    |--A. ciliatumRL05
    |    |--A. humifusumB96
    |    |--A. microcalyxGK00
    |    |--A. pallidumGK00
    |    |--A. prostratumGK00
    |    |--A. serratifoliumOS04
    |    |--A. styphelioidesMM09
    |    `--A. xerophyllumH18
    |    |--S. abnormisH03
    |    |--S. esquamataM87
    |    |--S. laetaC08
    |    |    |--S. l. var. laetaB96
    |    |    |--S. l. var. angustifoliaB96
    |    |    `--S. l. var. glabra Baker 1896B96
    |    |--S. longifoliaH87a
    |    |--S. nesophilaH03
    |    |--S. pulchellaG04
    |    |--S. reflexa Rudge 1811R11
    |    |--S. suaveolensP88
    |    |--S. tameiameiaeMK08
    |    |--S. tenuifloraGK00
    |    |--S. tubifloraKJ02
    |    `--S. viridisC08
    |--Cyathodes Labill. 1804KJ02, A61
    |    |--C. colensoi Hooker 1864 [=Leucopogon colensoi Hooker 1854]A61
    |    |--C. dealbataW91
    |    |--C. empetrifolia Hooker 1854 [=Androstoma empetrifolia Hooker 1844]A61
    |    |--C. fasciculata (Forster) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy)A61
    |    |--C. juniperina (Forster & Forster) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy)A61
    |    |    |--C. j. var. juniperinaA61
    |    |    `--C. j. var. oxycedrus (Labill.) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy)A61
    |    |--C. parviflora (Andr.) Allan 1961 [=Styphelia parviflora Andr. 1803, Leucopogon parviflorus Lindl. 1833]A61
    |    |--C. pumila Hooker 1867A61
    |    `--C. robusta Hooker 1864 [incl. C. acerosa var. latifolia Hooker 1854]A61
         |--L. alternifoliusW89
         |--L. amplexicaulisH87b
         |--L. attenuatusNC91
         |--L. australisGK00
         |--L. biflorusH87b
         |--L. capitellatusRL05
         |--L. cinereusLK00
         |--L. collinusC08
         |--L. conostephioidesRL05
         |--L. cuneifoliusG04
         |--L. cymbiformisOS04
         |--L. dielsianusOS04
         |--L. elatiorGK00
         |--L. ericoidesH87a
         |--L. esquamatusH87b
         |--L. fimbriatusOS04
         |--L. florulentusOS04
         |--L. fraseri Cunn. 1839KJ02, A61 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--L. f. var. fraseriA61
         |    `--L. f. var. muscosus Simpson 1945 [=Cyathodes fraseri var. muscosa (Simpson) Allan 1961]A61
         |--L. gibbosusGK00
         |--L. glabellusGK00
         |--L. gracillimusLK00
         |--L. hamulosusS95
         |--L. juniperinusWO88
         |--L. lanceolatusC08
         |--L. lasiophyllusGK00
         |--L. margarodesM65
         |--L. marginatusG04
         |--L. melaleucoidesC08
         |--L. microphyllusC08
         |    |--L. m. var. microphyllusC08
         |    `--L. m. var. pilibundusC08
         |--L. muticusKJ02
         |--L. neo-anglicusC08
         |--L. oxycedrusGK00
         |--L. pendulusGK00
         |--L. pogonocalyxOS04
         |--L. polymorphusGK00
         |--L. propinquusGK00
         |--L. pulchellusGK00
         |--L. richei Br. 1810ME70, A61 [=Styphelia richei Labill. 1804A61]
         |--L. sprengelioidesGK00
         |--L. sulcatusG04
         |--L. tamariscinusGK00
         |--L. unilateralisGK00
         |--L. verticillatusRL05
         `--L. virgatusN91

Cyathodes fasciculata (Forster) Allan 1961 [=Epacris fasciculata Forster 1786, Leucopogon fasciculatus Rich. 1832; incl. L. brevibarbis Stchegl. 1859, L. heterophyllus Colenso 1898]A61

Cyathodes juniperina (Forster & Forster) Druce 1917 [=Epacris juniperina Forster & Forster 1776; incl. Ardisia acerosa Gaertn. 1791, Cyathodes acerosa (Gaertn.) Br. 1810, C. articulata Col. 1896, Leucopogon forsteri Rich. 1832]A61

Cyathodes juniperina var. oxycedrus (Labill.) Allan 1961 [=Styphelia oxycedrus Labill. 1804, C. acerosa var. oxycedrus (Labill.) Cheesem. 1906, C. oxycedrus Br. 1810]A61

Leucopogon fraseri Cunn. 1839KJ02, A61 [=Cyathodes fraseri (Cunn.) Allan 1961A61, Styphelia fraseri Muell. 1867A61; incl. Leucopogon bellignianus Raoul 1844A61, Pentachondra mucronata Hook.f. 1849C06, L. nesophilus DC. 1839A61]

Pentachondra pumila (Forster & Forster) Br. 1810 [=Epacris pumila Forster & Forster 1776; incl. Trochocarpa novae-zelandiae Col. 1896, Pernettya polyphylla Col. 1899, Pentachondra rubra Col. 1896]A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[B96] Baker, R. T. 1896. On the botany of Rylstone and the Goulburn River districts. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (3): 427–466.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[GMD11] George, A. S., N. L. McKenzie & P. Doughty. 2011. A Biodiversity Survey of the Pilbara Region of Western Australia 2002–2007. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1).

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H87a] Haviland, E. 1887a. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. I—List of plants indigenous in the neighbourhood of Sydney, flowering during July. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1049–1051.

[H87b] Haviland, E. 1887b. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. II. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1103–1104.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H18] Houston, T. 2018. A Guide to Native Bees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing.

[KJ02] Kron, K. A., W. S. Judd, P. F. Stevens, D. M. Crayn, A. A. Anderberg, P. A. Gadek, C. J. Quinn & J. L. Luteyn. 2002. Phylogenetic classification of Ericaceae: molecular and morphological evidence. Botanical Review 68: 335–423.

[LK00] Lowrie, A., & K. F. Kenneally. 2000. Three new species of Stylidium (Stylidiaceae) from south-west Western Australia. Nuytsia 13: 293–302.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[MK08] Mockford, E. L., & P. D. Krushelnycky. 2008. New species and records of Liposcelis Motschulsky (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) from Hawaii with first description of the male of Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel. Zootaxa 1766: 53–68.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[MM09] Mound, L. A., & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1–76.

[M87] Mueller, F. von. 1887. Some hitherto undescribed plants of New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1105–1110.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[N91] Norris, K. R. 1991. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 68–108. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[R11] Rudge, E. 1811. A description of several species of plants from New Holland. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 10: 283–303.

[S95] Smith, G. T. 1995. Species richness, habitat and conservation of scorpions in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 55–66.

[WO88] Wakabayashi, M., & H. Ohba. 1988. Cytotaxonomic study of the Himalayan Saxifraga. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 71–90.

[W91] Williams, P. A. 1991. Subalpine and alpine vegetation of granite ranges in western Nelson, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 29: 317–330.

[W89] Woolls, W. 1889. Specimens of plants collected at King George’s Sound by the Rev. R. Collie, F.L.S. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (2): 317–324.

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