Fuchsia heath Epacris longiflora, copyright Tony Rodd.

Belongs within: Ericaceae.
Contains: Styphelieae, Richeeae.

The Styphelioideae are a clade of heath-like plants previously recognised as the family Epacridaceae but now regarded as a derived subgroup of the Ericaceae. Styphelioids are distinguished by their lignified leaf cells, known elsewhere among the Ericaceae only for the Lyonieae. In members of the tribes Styphelieae and Oligarrheneae within the Styphelioideae, the fruit is a drupe whereas in other tribes the fruit is a loculicidal capsule. Richeeae and Cosmelieae have leaf bases broadly sheathing the stem (Kron et al. 2002).

Characters (from Kron et al. 2002): Shrubs, small trees or climbers. Leaves evergreen, alternate, usually entire; veins often more or less palmate, parallel, or reduced to one. Leaf epidermal cells lignified; bracts and bracteoles scarious. Inflorescence variable, axillary or terminal. Flowers tetra- or pentamerous, actinomorphic. Calyx persistent; corolla persistent, sympetalous, usually tubular or campanulate, lobes small to large. Stamens 2, 4 or 5, usually epipetalous; anthers bisporangiate, inverting early in development, mostly monothecal, dehiscing by longitudinal slits, lacking a fibrous endothecium and disintegration tissue. Pollen in monads, tetrads, or shed as reduced tetrads with one or more cells aborting, without viscin threads. Ovary 1-11-locular, with axile or apical placentation, superior; style impressed or not; stigma capitate or lobed. Fruit drupaceous or a loculicidal capsule; seeds with variable testa; embryo with two cotyledons.

<==Styphelioideae [Epacridaceae, Epacridoideae]
    |  i. s.: Dulaurensia pulchra Reid 1930CBH93
    |    |--Prionotes cerinthoidesKJ02
    |    `--LebetanthusKJ02
    |         |--L. americanusD03
    |         `--L. myrsinitesKJ02
       |    |--Oligarrhena micranthaKJ02
       |    `--Needhamiella pumilioKJ02
       |--Archeria Hooker 1844KJ02, A61 [Archerieae]
       |    |--A. comberiKJ02
       |    |--A. racemosa Hooker 1864A61 [=Epacris racemosaC06]
       |    `--A. traversii Hooker 1864A61
       |         |--A. t. var. traversiiA61
       |         `--A. t. var. australis Hooker 1867A61
       |    |--Cosmelia rubraKJ02
       |    |--SprengeliaKJ02
       |    |    |--S. incarnataKJ02
       |    |    `--S. monticolaKJ02
       |    `--AndersoniaKJ02
       |         |--A. caeruleaGK00
       |         |--A. heterophyllaH91
       |         |--A. micranthaW89
       |         |--A. parvifoliaOS04
       |         `--A. sprengelioidesKJ02
       `--Epacrideae [Epacridinae]KJ02
            |--Rupicola sprengeloidesKJ02
            |--Lysinema ciliatumKJ02
            |--Woollsia pungensKJ02
            `--Epacris Cav. 1797A61
                 |--E. alpina Hooker 1854 [incl. E. affinis Colenso 1888]A61
                 |--E. brevifloraB00
                 |--E. calvertianaM87
                 |--E. crassifoliaM87
                 |--E. impressaKJ02
                 |--E. longifloraKJ02
                 |--E. microphyllaC08
                 |--E. obtusifoliaH87a
                 |--E. paludosaB00
                 |--E. pauciflora Rich. 1832A61
                 |    |--E. p. var. paucifloraA61
                 |    `--E. p. var. sinclairii (Hooker) Cheeseman 1906 [=E. sinclairii Hooker 1864]A61
                 |--E. petrophilaB00
                 |--E. pulchellaH87b
                 |--E. purpurascensH87b
                 `--E. reclinataB96

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[B96] Baker, R. T. 1896. On the botany of Rylstone and the Goulburn River districts. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (3): 427–466.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H87a] Haviland, E. 1887a. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. I—List of plants indigenous in the neighbourhood of Sydney, flowering during July. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1049–1051.

[H87b] Haviland, E. 1887b. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. II. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1103–1104.

[H91] Houston, T. F. 1991. Two new and unusual species of the bee genus Leioproctus Smith (Hymenoptera: Colletidae), with notes on their behaviour. Records of the Western Australian Museum 15 (1): 83–96.

[KJ02] Kron, K. A., W. S. Judd, P. F. Stevens, D. M. Crayn, A. A. Anderberg, P. A. Gadek, C. J. Quinn & J. L. Luteyn. 2002. Phylogenetic classification of Ericaceae: molecular and morphological evidence. Botanical Review 68: 335–423.

[M87] Mueller, F. von. 1887. Some hitherto undescribed plants of New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1105–1110.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[W89] Woolls, W. 1889. Specimens of plants collected at King George’s Sound by the Rev. R. Collie, F.L.S. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (2): 317–324.

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