Suina

 Collared peccary Dicotyles tajacu, photographed by Colin Burnett.

Belongs within: Artiodactyla.
Contains: Listriodontinae, Suinae, Sanitheriinae, Hyotherium.

The Suinamorpha unites the pigs (Suidae) and the peccaries (Tayassuidae). Members of this clade have an elongate, mobile, cartilaginous snout with a flattened terminal area around the nostrils (Cooke & Wilkinson 1978). In the modern fauna, the Suidae are native to the Old World while the Tayassuidae are restricted to the New World, but the fossil record indicates that Tayassuidae were previously present in the Old World from the Oligocene to Pliocene. Modern peccaries are generally sociable animals, though the chacoan peccary Catagonus wagneri forms only small groups of up to ten individuals. The white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari, in contrast, can form herds of over 100 individuals.

<==Suina [Doliochoerinae, Suinamorpha, Suoidea]SOG09
    |  i. s.: Kenyasus namaquensisP02
    |--Perchoerus Leidy 1869GT09, SM93
    `--+--SuidaeCW78
       |    |  i. s.: Nguruwe kijiviumMJ11, P02
       |    |         Hemichoerus Filhol 1882SM93
       |    |         EocenchoerusR06
       |    |--Xenohyus venitorBLB05
       |    `--+--+--ListriodontinaeCW78
       |       |  `--SuinaeCW78
       |       `--+--SanitheriinaeCW78
       |          |--Hyotheriinae [Palaeochoerinae]CW78
       |          |    |--HyotheriumCW78
       |          |    |--Chleuastochoerus stehliniCW78, DW04
       |          |    |--Palaeochoerus Pomel 1846BLB05, CW78
       |          |    |--SiamochoerusR06
       |          |    `--Propalaeochoerus Stehlin 1899CW78
       |          |         `--*P. leptodon Stehlin 1899CW78
       |          `--TetraconodontinaeCW78
       |               |--Tetraconodon Falconer 1868CW78
       |               |--Conohyus Pilgrim 1926CW78
       |               |--Sivachoerus Pilgrim 1926CW78
       |               `--Nyanzachoerus Leakey 1958CW78
       |                    |  i. s.: ‘Sivachoerus’ giganteus Tobien 1936CW78
       |                    |--N. devauxi (Arambourg 1968) [=Propotamochoerus devauxi]CW78
       |                    `--+--+--N. syrticus (Leonardi 1952) (n. d.) [=Sivachoerus syrticus]CW78
       |                       |  `--N. tulotos Cooke & Ewer 1972CW78
       |                       `--+--+--*N. kanamensis Leakey 1958CW78
       |                          |  `--N. pattersoni Cooke & Ewer 1972CW78
       |                          `--+--N. jaegeri Coppens 1971 [incl. N. plicatus Cooke & Ewer 1972]CW78
       |                             `--Notochoerus Broom 1925 [incl. Gerontochoerus Leakey 1943]CW78
       |                                  |--N. euilus (Hopwood 1926) [=Hylochoerus euilus, Gerontochoerus euilus]CW78
       |                                  `--+--*N. capensis Broom 1925CW78
       |                                     `--N. scotti (Leakey 1943) [=*Gerontochoerus scotti]CW78
       `--Tayassuidae [Dicotylidae]JJ84
            |  i. s.: DesmathyusW69
            |         HesperhysW69
            |         Prosthennops niobrarensisW69
            |         PecarichoerusCW78
            |           |--P. africanus Hendey 1976CW78
            |           `--P. orientalisCW78
            |         Dyseohyus Stock 1937W69
            |           |--*D. fricki Stock 1937W69
            |           `--D. stirtoni Woodburne 1969W69
            |         EgatochoerusR06
            |--Doliochoerus Filhol 1882BLB05, SM93
            |    `--D. quercyiBLB05
            |--Cynorca Cope 1867MJ11, W69
            |    |--*C. proterva Cope 1867 [=Squalodon protervus]W69
            |    |--C. hesperia (Marsh 1871) [=Dicotyles hesperius, Chaenohyus hesperius, Tayassu hesperius]W69
            |    |--C. occidentale Woodburne 1969W69
            |    `--C. sociale (Marsh 1875) (see below for synonymy)W69
            `--+--+--Tayassu Fischer 1814N10
               |  |    `--T. pecari Link 1795W69
               |  |        |--T. p. pecariG69
               |  |        `--T. p. ringensG69
               |  `--+--PlatygonusFS15
               |     |    |--P. compressicepsFS15
               |     |    `--P. condoniW69
               |     `--MylohyusFS15
               |          |--M. fossilis [=Dicotyles fossilis; incl. D. lenis]W69
               |          |--M. nasutusFS15
               |          `--M. pennsylvanicusGD61
               `--+--Catagonus Ameghino 1904FS15, N10
                  |    |--C. stenocephalusFS15
                  |    `--C. wagneri (Rusconi 1930) [=Platygonus carlesi wagneri]N10
                  `--Dicotyles Cuvier 1817N10 [=Pecari Reichenbach 1835BLB05, N10]
                       |--D. labiatusC77
                       |--‘Pecari’ maximusFS15
                       |--D. tajacu (Linnaeus 1758)W69 (see below for synonymy)
                       |    |--D. t. tajacuMB86
                       |    |--‘Tayassu tajacu’ angulatusMB86 [=Pecari angulatusRJ11]
                       |    |--‘Tayassu tajacu’ crassusG69
                       |    |--‘Tayassu tajacu’ humeralisG69
                       |    |--‘Tayassu tajacu’ nelsoniG69
                       |    `--‘Tayassu tajacu’ sonoriensis (Mearns 1897)MB86
                       `--D. traunmulleriW69
Inorganic: Tayassu albirostris minilorientalis Okamura 1987O87
           Tayassu tayacu minilorientalus Okamura 1987O87

Cynorca sociale (Marsh 1875) [=Thinohyus socialis, T. (Bothrolabis) socialis, Palaeochoerus socialis, Perchoerus socialis]W69

Dicotyles tajacu (Linnaeus 1758)W69 [=Sus tajacuW69, Pecari tajacuN10, Tayassu tajacuN10; incl. Dicotyles torquatus Cuvier 1817W69]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BLB05] Boisserie, J.-R., F. Lihoreau & M. Brunet. 2005. The position of Hippopotamidae within Cetartiodactyla. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 102 (5): 1537–1541.

[CW78] Cooke, H. B. S., & A. F. Wilkinson. 1978. Suidae and Tayassuidae. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 435–482. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (2): i–iv, 1–370.

[DW04] Deng T., Wang X., Ni X. & Liu L. 2004. Sequence of the Cenozoic mammalian faunas of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 78 (1): 8–14.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[GT09] Geisler, J. H., & J. M. Theodor. 2009. Hippopotamus and whale phylogeny. Nature 458: E1–E5.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[GD61] Guilday, J. E. & J. K. Doutt. 1961. The collared lemming (Dicrostonyx) from the Pennsylvania Pleistocene. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 249–250.

[JJ84] Janis, C., & P. J. Jarman. 1984. The hoofed mammals. In: Macdonald, D., (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals pp. 28–39. Torstar Books: New York.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[MJ11] Meredith, R. W., J. E. Janečka, J. Gatesy, O. A. Ryder, C. A. Fisher, E. C. Teeling, A. Goodbla, E. Eizirik, T. L. L. Simão, T. Stadler, D. L. Rabosky, R. L. Honeycutt, J. J. Flynn, C. M. Ingram, C. Steiner, T. L. Williams, T. J. Robinson, A. Burk-Herrick, M. Westerman, N. A. Ayoub, M. S. Springer & W. J. Murphy. 2011. Impacts of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification. Science 334: 521–524.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[P02] Pickford, M. 2002. Early Miocene grassland ecosystem at Bukwa, Mount Elgon, Uganda. Comptes Rendus Palevol 1: 213–219.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[R06] Rose, K. D. 2006. The Beginning of the Age of Mammals. John Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.

[SOG09] Spaulding, M., M. A. O’Leary & J. Gatesy. 2009. Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) among mammals: increased taxon sampling alters interpretation of key fossils and character evolution. PLoS One 4 (9): e7062.

[SM93] Stucky, R. K., & M. C. McKenna. 1993. Mammalia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 739–771. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W69] Woodburne, M. O. 1969. Systematics, biogeography, and evolution of Cynorca and Dyseohyus (Tayassuidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (2): 271–356.

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