Swertia

Many-stem swertia Swertia multicaulis, copyright Pema G. Bhutia.

Belongs within: Gentianeae.
Contains: Swertia subgenus Ophelia.

Swertia, the felworts, is a cosmopolitan genus of herbs, most diverse in Asia and Africa.

Characters (from Flora of China): Herbs annual or perennial. Roots fibrous or woody; primary roots with few secondary rootlets or rhizomes short and with few fleshy adventitious rootlets. Stems absent, scapiform, or well developed, ascending or erect, terete, striate or angled, simple or branched. Leaves opposite, rarely alternate or whorled, margin entire. Inflorescences cymose, usually grouped into simple or paniculate thyrses, rarely strictly dichotomous, sometimes reduced to single flowers and inflorescences racemelike or flowers solitary and terminal. Flowers 4- or 5-merous. Calyx and corolla rotate, lobed to base, tubes less than 3 mm. Nectaries 1 or 2 per corolla lobe, with fimbriate margin or represented by naked spotlike gland patches. Stamens inserted at base of corolla tube. Ovary 1-celled. Style short to elongate. Capsules 2-valved, few to many seeded. Seeds small.

Swertia Linnaeus 1753 [incl. Anagallidium, Kingdon-Wardia, Sczukinia]SK02
|--*S. perennisSK02 [incl. Gentiana paniculataG39]
| |--S. p. var. perennisG39
| `--S. p. var. obtusaG39
`--+--S. adolfi-fridericiSK02
`--S. volkensiiSK02

Swertia incertae sedis:
S. abyssinicaSK02
S. acaulisO88
S. alternifoliaO88
S. arisanensisJS02
S. bifoliaSK02
S. calycinaJS02
S. candelabrumO88
S. caroliniensisJS02
S. chirayitaJS02
S. ciliataO88
S. cinctaJS02
S. coeruleaG39
S. connataJS02
S. crassiusculaSK02
S. cuneataO88
S. davidiJS02
S. decumbens [incl. Parnassia polynectaria]G39
S. decussataJS02
S. dichotomaBC02 [=Anagallidium dichotomumG39]
S. dilatataO88
S. elongataJS02
S. erythrostictaJS02
S. fasciculataJS02
S. fastigiata [=Frasera fastigiata; incl. F. umpquaensis]H93
S. filiformis (n. d.)G39
S. florida (n. d.)G39
S. gracilifloraJS02
S. hispidicalyxO88
S. hookeriO88
S. ibericaJS02
S. javanicaG39
S. kingiiO88
S. lawiiJS02
S. macrocarpaBC02
S. macrospermaJS02
S. marginataSK02
S. mileensisJS02
S. multicaulisO88
S. mussotiiJS02
S. neglecta [=Frasera neglecta]H93
S. parryi [=Frasera parryi]H93
S. patensJS02
S. perfoliataJS02
S. petiolataO88
S. piloglandulosaBC02
|--S. p. ssp. piloglandulosaBC02
`--S. p. ssp. biovulataBC02
S. przewalskiiJS02
S. pseudochinensisJS02
S. puberulenta [=Frasera puberulenta; incl. S. albomarginata var. purpusii]H93
S. pubescensJS02
S. punctataG39
S. puniceaJS02
S. radiataH93
S. ramosaO88
S. randaiensisJS02
S. speciosaO88
S. staintoniiO88
S. swertopsisJS02
S. tashiroiBGS05
S. tetrapetalaJS02 [=Anagallidium tetrapetalumG39]
S. tetrapteraBC02
S. tosaensisJS02
S. tubulosa [=Frasera tubulosa]H93
S. usambarensisBC02
S. verticillifoliumJS02
S. subg. OpheliaBC02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BGS05] Banfi, E., G. Galasso & A. Soldano. 2005. Notes on systematics and taxonomy for the Italian vascular flora. 1. Atti Soc. It. Sci. Nat. Museo Civ. Stor. Nat. Milano 146 (2): 219–244.

[BC02] Bouman, F., L. Cobb, N. Devente, V. Goethals, P. J. M. Maas & E. Smets. 2002. The seeds of Gentianaceae. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 498–572. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[G39] Grisebach, A. H. R. 1839. Genera et Species Gentianearum adjectis observationibus quibusdam phytogeographicis. J. G. Cotta: Stuttgardt.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[JS02] Jensen, S. R., & J. Schripsema. 2002. Chemotaxonomy and pharmacology of Gentianaceae. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 573–631. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H. & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[SK02] Struwe, L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen & V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal classification. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 21–309. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

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