Syncarida

Allobathynella japonica, from Morimoto & Miura (1957).

Belongs within: Eumalacostraca.
Contains: Bathynella, Hexabathynella, Iberobathynella.

The Syncarida are a group of malacostracan crustaceans found primarily in fresh water that lack a carapace. Living examples are divided between the Anaspidacea, in which the first thoracic segment is fused to the head and a tail fan is present, and the minute Bathynellacea that lack a tail fan.

<==Syncarida S86
|  i. s.: Allanaspides S86
|–Palaeocaridacea MD01
|    |–Clarkecaris [Clarkecarididae] G88
|    |    `–C. brazilicus (Clarke 1920) S77
|    |–Minicarididae BWW93
|    |    |–Minicaris brandi Schram 1979 BWW93
|    |    `–Erythrogaulos carrizoensis Schram 1984 BWW93
|    |–Squillitidae BWW93
|    |    |–Squillites spinosa Scott 1938 BWW93
|    |    `–Nectotelson krejcii (Fritsch 1875) BWW93
|    |–Palaeocaris [Palaeocarididae] G88
|    |    |–P. canadensis G88
|    |    |–P. retractata Calman 1932 BWW93
|    |    |–P. secretanae Schram 1984 BWW93
|    |    `–P. typus G88
|    `–Acanthotelsonidae BWW93
|         |–Palaeosyncaris dakotensis Brooks 1962 BWW93
|         |–Acanthotelson [incl. Eileticus] WA04
|         |    |–‘Eileticus’ anthracinus Scudder 1882 WA04
|         |    `–A. stimpsoni G88
|         `–Uronectes BWW93
|              |–U. fimbriatus (Jordan 1947) BWW93
|              `–U. kinniensis G88
|–Anaspidacea [Anaspidinea] LSE13
|    |–Anaspididae BWW93
|    |    |–Anaspidites antiquus (Chilton 1929) BWW93
|    |    |–Anaspides Thomson 1894
|    |    |    `–A. tasmaniae (Thomson 1893)
|    |    `–Koonaspides indistinctus G88
|    |–Koonungidae S86
|    |    |–Koonunga N31
|    |    `–Micraspides Nicholls 1931 N31
|    |         `–*M. calmani Nicholls 1931 N31
|    |–Psammaspididae S86
|    |    |–Psammaspides Schminke 1974 S86
|    |    |    `–P. williamsi S86
|    |    `–Eucrenonaspides Knott & Lake 1980 S86
|    |         `–E. oinotheke Knott & Lake 1980 S86
|    `–Stygocarididae [Stygocaridacea] S86
|         |–Oncostygocaris Schminke 1980 S86
|         |    `–O. patagonica (Noodt 1963) S86
|         |–Stygocarella Schminke 1980 S86
|         |    `–S. pleotelson Schminke 1980 S86
|         |–Parastygocaris Noodt 1963 S86
|         |    |–P. andina Noodt 1963 S86
|         |    `–P. goerssi Noodt 1963 S86
|         `–Stygocaris Noodt 1963 S86
|              |–S. giselae Schminke 1980 S86
|              |–S. gomezmillasi Noodt 1963 S86
|              `–S. townsendi Morimoto 1977 S86
`–Bathynellacea LSE13
|–Bathynellidae S86
|    |–Bathynella S86
|    |–Sardobathynella Serban 1973 S86
|    |    `–S. cottarelli Serban 1973 S86
|    |–Vandelibathynella Serban, Coineau & Delamare Deboutteville 1971 S86
|    |    `–V. vandeli (Delamare Deboutteville & Chappuis 1954) S86
|    |–Agnathobathynella Schminke 1980 S86
|    |    `–A. ecclesi Schminke 1980 S86
|    |–Austrobathynella Delamare Deboutteville 1960 S86
|    |    `–A. patagonica Delamare Deboutteville 1960 S86
|    |–Transvaalthynella Serban & Coineau 1975 S86
|    |    `–T. coineaui Serban & Coineau 1975 S86
|    |–Transkeithynella Serban & Coineau 1975 S86
|    |    `–T. paradoxa Serban & Coineau 1975 S86
|    |–Parameridiobathynella Serban & Leclerc 1984 S86
|    |    `–P. gardensis Serban & Leclerc 1984 S86
|    |–Pseudobathynella Serban, Coineau & Delamare Deboutteville 1971 S86
|    |    |–P. helvetica Serban & Delamare Deboutteville 1974 S86
|    |    `–P. magniezi Serban, Coineau & Delamare Deboutteville 1971 S86
|    |–Meridiobathynella Serban, Coineau & Delamare Deboutteville 1971 S86
|    |    |–M. catalanensis Serban, Coineau & Delamare Deboutteville 1971 S86
|    |    `–M. rouchi Serban, Coineau & Delamare Deboutteville 1971 S86
|    |–Vejdovskybathynella Serban & Leclerc 1984 S86
|    |    |–V. balazuci Serban & Leclerc 1984 S86
|    |    `–V. espattyensis Serban & Leclerc 1984 S86
|    |–Antrobathynella Serban 1966 S86
|    |    `–A. stammeri (Jakobi 1954) S86
|    |         |–A. s. stammeri S86
|    |         `–A. s. ciscaucasia (Birstein & Ljovuschkin 1964) S86
|    |–Nannobathynella Noodt 1969 S86
|    |    |–N. africana Schminke & Wells 1974 S86
|    |    |–N. eburnea Schminke 1979 S86
|    |    `–N. marcusi Noodt 1969 S86
|    `–Gallobathynella Serban, Coineau & Delamare Deboutteville 1971 S86
|         |–G. boui Serban, Coineau & Delamare Deboutteville 1971 S86
|         |–G. coiffaiti (Delamare Deboutteville 1961) S86
|         |–G. delayi Serban, Coineau & Delamare Deboutteville 1971 S86
|         |–G. juberthiae Serban, Coineau & Delamare Deboutteville 1971 S86
|         `–G. tarissei Serban, Coineau & Delamare Deboutteville 1971 S86
`–Parabathynellidae S86
|–Lamtobathynella pentodonta S86
|–Hexabathynella S86
|–Iberobathynella S86
|–Batubathynella Schminke 1973 S86
|    `–B. malaya (Sars 1929) S86
|–Nipponbathynella Schminke 1973 S86
|    `–N. miurai (Ueno 1952) S86
|–Ctenophallonella Coineau & Serban 1978 S86
|    `–C. mutlumuviensis Coineau & Serban 1978 S86
|–Haplophallonella Serban & Coineau 1975 S86
|    `–H. heterodonta Serban & Coineau 1975 S86
|–Heterodontobathynella Schminke 1973 S86
|    `–H. ninianae (Green 1964) S86
|–Brasilibathynella Jakobi 1958 S86
|    `–B. florianopolis Jakobi 1958 S86
|–Odontobathynella Delamare Deboutteville & Serban 1979 S86
|    `–O. amazonica Delamare Deboutteville & Serban 1979 S86
|–Acanthobathynella Coineau 1967 S86
|    `–A. knoepffleri Coineau 1967 S86
|–Afrobathynella Schminke 1976 S86
|    `–A. trimera Schminke 1976 S86
|–Nunubathynella Schminke 1976 S86
|    `–N. dimera Schminke 1976 S86
|–Psalidobathynella Schminke 1979 S86
|    `–P. stocki Schminke 1979 S86
|–Nilobathynella Dumont 1984 S86
|    `–N. predynastica Dumont 1984 S86
|–Thermobathynella Capart 1951 S86
|    |–T. adami Capart 1951 S86
|    `–T. amyxi Siewing 1956 S86
|–Habrobathynella Schminke 1973 S86
|    |–H. jeanneli (Delamare Deboutteville & Paulian 1954) S86
|    `–H. milloti (Delamare Deboutteville & Paulian 1954) S86
|–Chilibathynella Noodt 1963 S86
|    |–C. australiensis Schminke 1973 S86
|    `–C. clandestina Noodt 1963 S86
|–Noodtibathynella Schminke 1973 S86
|    |–N. jumboli (Siewing 1958) S86
|    `–N. neotropica (Noodt 1965) S86
|–Parabathynella Chappuis 1926 S86
|    |–P. malaya N31
|    |–P. motasi Dancau & Serban 1963 S86
|    `–P. stygia Chappuis 1926 [incl. P. phreatica Chappuis 1939] S86
|–Parvulobathynella Schminke 1973 S86
|    |–P. camposicola (Jakobi 1961) S86
|    |–P. riegelorum (Noodt 1965) S86
|    `–P. ypacaraiensis (Noodt 1963) S86
|–Leptobathynella Noodt 1965 [Leptobathynellidae] S86
|    |–L. camposicola (Jakobi 1961) S86
|    `–L. richerti (Noodt 1963) S86
|         |–L. r. richerti S86
|         `–L. r. brasiliensis Noodt 1972 S86
|–Atopobathynella Schminke 1973 S86
|    |–A. chelifera Schminke 1973 S86
|    |–A. compagana Schminke 1973 S86
|    |–A. hospitalis Schminke 1973 S86
|    `–A. valdiviana (Noodt 1965) S86
|–Eobathynella Birstein & Ljovuschkin 1964 S86
|    |–E. gracillima (Ueno 1956) S86
|    |–E. matuta (Morimoto 1970) S86
|    |–E. mesasiatica (Birstein & Ljovuschkin 1964) S86
|    |–E. minima Jankowskaja 1972 S86
|    `–E. tianshanica (Jankowskaja 1964) S86
|–Notobathynella Schminke 1973 S86
|    |–N. chiltoni Schminke 1973 S86
|    |–N. hineoneae Schminke 1973 S86
|    |–N. longipes Schminke 1978 S86
|    |–N. remota Schminke 1973 S86
|    `–N. williamsi Schminke 1973 S86
|–Cteniobathynella Schminke 1973 S86
|    |–C. bakeri (Green 1964) S86
|    |–C. calmani (Por 1968) S86
|    |–C. caparti (Fryer 1957) S86
|    |–C. essameuri Dumont 1981 S86
|    |–C. leleupi (Delamare Deboutteville & Chappuis 1955) S86
|    |–C. noodti Schminke 1973 S86
|    `–C. teocchii (Coineau & Knoepffler 1971) S86
`–Allobathynella Morimoto & Miura 1957 S86
|–A. carinata (Ueno 1952) S86
|–A. coreana Morimoto 1970 S86
|–A. gigantea (Morimoto 1959) S86
|    |–A. g. gigantea S86
|    `–A. g. pluto (Morimoto 1963) S86
|–A. japonica Morimoto & Miura 1957 S86
|–A. kuma (Ueno 1956) S86
|–A. mirabilis Ueno 1961 S86
`–A. yaye (Ueno 1956) S86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BWW93] Briggs, D. E. G., M. J. Weedon & M. A. Whyte. 1993. Arthropoda (Crustacea excluding Ostracoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 321–342. Chapman & Hall: London.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[LSE13] Legg, D. A., M. D. Sutton & G. D. Edgecombe. 2013. Arthropod fossil data increase congruence of morphological and molecular phylogenies. Nature Communications 4: 2485.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.

[N31] Nicholls, G. E. 1931. Micraspides calmani, a new syncaridan from the west coast of Tasmania. Linnean Society’s Journal—Zoology 37 (254): 473–488.

[S86] Schminke, H. K. 1986. Syncarida. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 389–404. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[S77] Schram, F. R. 1977. Paleozoogeography of Late Paleozoic and Triassic Malacostraca. Systematic Zoology 26 (4): 367–379.

[WA04] Wilson, H. M., & L. I. Anderson. 2004. Morphology and taxonomy of Paleozoic millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 169–184.

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