Greater pipefish Syngnathus acus, copyright Hans Hillewaert.

Belongs within: Syngnathidae.

Syngnathus is a genus of pipefishes with a full complement of fins, and the lower but not the upper ridge of trunk and tail continuous (Smith 1963).

Characters (from Smith 1963): All fins present. Snout variably short to long. Ridge on opercle, short or complete. Upper ridge of trunk and tail not continuous, free ends run closely parallel or almost so. Lower ridge of trunk and tail continuous. Median ridge of trunk ends abruptly at end trunk ring, or joins or almost joins upper tail ridge, or bends down to join or almost join lower tail ridge. Dorsal of 20–45 rays, most or all on tail. Brood pouch on tail.

Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758S63
|--S. acus Linnaeus 1758 [incl. S. alternans Gunther 1870, S. brachyrhynchus Kaup 1856]S63
|--S. aequoreus Linnaeus 1758L58
|--S. affinisK-M02
|--S. algeriensis Playfair 1870S63
|--S. analicarens Duncker 1915S63
|--S. barbarus Linnaeus 1758L58
|--S. cyanospilos Bleeker 1854 [incl. S. mossambicus Peters 1855]S63
|--S. djarong Bleeker 1853 [incl. Corythroichthys pullus Smith & Seale 1906]S63
|--S. fuscus Storer 1839K-M02
|--S. leptorhynchusND13
|--S. louisianaeF15
|--S. macrophthalmus Duncker 1915 [=S. (Parasyngnathus) macrophthalmus]S63
|--S. ophidion Linnaeus 1758L58
|--S. parviceps Ramsay & Douglas-Ogilby 1886RD-O86
|--S. pelagicus Linnaeus 1758 [incl. S. coquerelii Dumeril 1870]S63
|--S. schlegeliSSE10
|--S. spicifer Rüppell 1840S63 [incl. S. gastrotaenia Bleeker 1868M58, S. tapeinosoma Gunther 1870S63]
|--S. springeriK-M02
|--S. typhle Linnaeus 1758LD09
`--S. watermeyeri Smith 1963S63

*Type species of generic name indicated


[F15] Fowler, H. W. 1915. Cold-blooded vertebrates from Florida, the West Indies, Costa Rica, and eastern Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 244–269.

[K-M02] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Pipefishes and seahorses. Family Syngnathidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 321–326. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[LD09] Li, B., A. Dettaï, C. Cruaud, A. Couloux, M. Desoutter-Meniger & G. Lecointre. 2009. RNF213, a new nuclear marker for acanthomorph phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 50: 345–363.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M58] Munro, I. S. R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region: a check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel “Fairwind” during the years 1948 to 1950. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal 10 (4): 97–369 (reprinted: 1958. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin no. 1).

[ND13] Near, T. J., A. Dornburg, R. I. Eytan, B. P. Keck, W. L. Smith, K. L. Kuhn, J. A. Moore, S. A. Price, F. T. Burbrink, M. Friedman & P. C. Wainwright. 2013. Phylogeny and tempo of diversification in the superradiation of spiny-rayed fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110 (31): 12738–12743.

[RD-O86] Ramsay, E. P., & J. Douglas-Ogilby. 1886. Descriptions of two new fishes. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 474–475.

[S63] Smith, J. L. B. 1963. Fishes of the family Syngnathidae from the Red Sea and the western Indian Ocean. Ichthyological Bulletin 27: 515–543.

[SSE10] Sokolovskaya, T. G., A. S. Sokolovsky & I. V. Epur. 2010. Composition and seasonal variability of ichthyoplankton collected using fishing lights in Vostok Bay (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan). In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 182–186. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

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