Syrphoidea

Paragus haemorrhous, copyright Aleksandrs Balodis.

Belongs within: Cyclorrhapha.
Contains: Pipunculinae, Microdon, Eristalini, Cerioidini, Syrphus.

The Syrphoidea are a group of flies including two distinctive families, the Syrphidae and Pipunculidae, that lack a ptilinal fissure and possess wings with a very long cell CuP (Colless & McAlpine 1991). The Syrphidae, hover flies, are often strikingly coloured flies, a number of which mimic bees or wasps in their appearance. Most visit flowers as adults and many are important pollinators (Thompson et al. 2010). The larvae of Syrphidae are predatory or detritivores; larvae of the Eristalinae are the ‘rat-tailed maggots’ that live in anoxic mud. Adults of Microdon and Eristalinae have the postpronota exposed behind the head and bearing at least a few suberect or appressed hairs whereas Syrphinae have the postpronota bare and hidden by the rear of the posteriorly concave, closely appressed head (Vockeroth & Thompson 1987).

The Pipunculidae, big-headed flies, are small flies with large compound eyes occupying most of the globose to semiglobose head. Their larvae develop as endoparasitoids, mostly of Auchenorrhyncha except Nephrocerus species that attack crane flies. The Nephrocerinae are distinguished from other subfamilies by a deep medial incision on the hind margin of the eye and a reniform first flagellomere whereas other pipunculids have the hind margin of the eye more or less straight and the first flagellomere is acute. Chalarinae have distinct ocellar bristles, a narrow occiput, and strong bristles on the margins of the scutum and scutellum. In the genus Chalarus, wing venation is incomplete with vein M reduced and cross vein dm-cu absent (Rafael & Skevington 2010).

<==SyrphoideaRS10
    |--Pipunculidae [Dorilaidae]RS10
    |    |  i. s.: AlloneuraA71
    |    |         ColliniasRS10
    |    |         BeckeriasCM91
    |    |         MetanephrocerusP92
    |    |--PipunculinaeRS10
    |    |--Nephrocerinae [Nephrocerini]RS10
    |    |    |--Protonephrocerus colliniRS10, H87
    |    |    `--NephrocerusRS10
    |    |         |--N. daeckeiH87
    |    |         `--N. slossonaeRS10
    |    `--ChalarinaeRS10
    |         |--Chalarus spuriusRS10, H87
    |         |--JassidophagaRS10
    |         `--VerralliaRS10
    |              |--V. auctaH87
    |              `--V. virginicaRS10
    `--Syrphidae [Syrphiae]RS10
         |  i. s.: Helophilina Becker 1922KS05
         |         Episyrphus balteatusWT11
         |         SyrittaTRZ10
         |           |--S. flaviventrisTRZ10
         |           `--S. pipiensVT87
         |         EristalinusTRZ10
         |           |--E. aenusTRZ10
         |           `--E. punctulatusZS10
         |         MetasyrphusRD77
         |           |--M. americanusE66
         |           |--M. lapponicusE66
         |           |--M. meadiiE66
         |           `--M. nitensRD77
         |         NeocnemodonG84
         |         EumerusTRZ10
         |           |--E. quadrimaculatusG89
         |           |--E. sabulonumK01
         |           `--E. strigatusTRZ10
         |         VolucellaVT87
         |           |--V. bombylansVT87
         |           |--V. facialisC00
         |           |--V. inanis (Linnaeus 1758)RD77, L58 [=Musca inanisL02, Syrphus (Volucella) inanisG20]
         |           |--V. mexicanaE66
         |           |--V. nigraE66
         |           |--V. obesaBM76
         |           |--V. pellucensWJ18
         |           `--V. zonariaRD77
         |         ChrysogasterVT87
         |           |--C. aeneaR26
         |           |--C. antitheusVT87
         |           `--C. chalybeataK01
         |         BrachyopaVT87
         |           |--B. (Brachyopa) notataVT87
         |           `--B. (Hammerschmidtia) ferrugineaVT87
         |         Ascia disparK01
         |         MelithreptusK01
         |           |--M. scriptusK01
         |           `--M. strigatusK01
         |         PipizellaK01
         |           |--P. maculataK01
         |           `--P. virensK01
         |         PipizaTRZ10
         |           |--P. femoralisE66
         |           |--P. noctilucaK01
         |           `--P. quadrimaculataVT87
         |         LycastrirhynchaTRZ10
         |           |--L. nitensTRZ10
         |           `--L. willistoniTRZ10
         |         CheilosiaTRZ10
         |           |--C. antiquaK01
         |           |--C. capillataTRZ10
         |           |--C. sialiaVT87
         |           |--C. velutinaK01
         |           |--C. viduataK01
         |           `--C. zetterstedtiK01
         |         Cepa alex [=Xela alex]TRZ10
         |         Nothomicrodon aztecarum Wheeler 1924TRZ10
         |         RhopalosyrphusTRZ10
         |           |--R. carolaeVT87
         |           `--R. guentheriiTRZ10
         |         ParamicrodonTRZ10
         |         Argentinomyia rugosonasusTRZ10
         |         AristosyrphusTRZ10
         |         MixogasterTRZ10
         |           |--M. conopsoidesTRZ10
         |           |--M. delongiTRZ10
         |           |--M. mexicanaTRZ10
         |           `--M. orpheusTRZ10
         |         Paragodon paragoidesTRZ10
         |         Cacoceria cressoniTRZ10
         |         Mutillimyia auricaudataTRZ10
         |         AllobacchaCM91
         |         SimosyrphusCM91
         |         TemnostomaVT87
         |         NeoasciaVT87
         |           |--N. distinctaVT87
         |           `--N. metallicaVT87
         |         Palumbia inflataVT87
         |         HiatomyiaVT87
         |         Hadromyia (Hadromyia) grandisVT87
         |         PsilotaVT87
         |           |--P. rubraCM70
         |           `--P. thatunaVT87
         |         Pelecocera pergandeiVT87
         |         Chamaesyrphus willistoniiVT87
         |         SpheginaVT87
         |           |--S. (Sphegina) keenianaVT87
         |           `--S. (Asiosphegina) petiolataVT87
         |         CynorhinellaVT87
         |           |--C. bellaVT87
         |           `--C. longinasusVT87
         |         Tropidia quadrataVT87
         |         Merapioidus villosusVT87
         |         BrachypalpusVT87
         |           |--B. (Brachypalpus) oarusVT87
         |           `--B. (Crioprora) femoratusVT87
         |         Somula decoraVT87
         |         Pyritis kincaidiiVT87
         |         Heringia [incl. Cnemodon]VT87
         |         FerdinandeaVT87
         |         LejotaVT87
         |         Blera badiaVT87
         |         SphecomyiaVT87
         |         Pocota bomboidesVT87
         |         Pterallastes thoracicusVT87
         |         Paramixogaster icariiformisR78
         |         Mesogramma politaRD77
         |         GraptomyzaGC99
         |         CheilosialeptaP92
         |         DoliomyiaP92
         |         EoxylotaP92
         |         MegaxylotaP92
         |         PalaeoasciaP92
         |         PalaeopipizaP92
         |         PalaeospheginaP92
         |         ProtorhingiaP92
         |         PseudospheginaP92
         |         PtilocephalaP92
         |         SpheginasciaP92
         |         MesograptaE66
         |           |--M. geminataE66
         |           `--M. marginataE66
         |         Stenosyrphus pullulusE66
         |         Orthoprosopa nigraF96
         |         Psarus abdominalisR26 [=Syrphus (Psarus) abdominalisG20]
         |         CeriaR26
         |           |--C. clavicornisL02
         |           |--C. conopseaL02 [=Mulio conopseusL02, Syrphus (Ceria) conopseusG20]
         |           |--C. conopsoideaR26
         |           `--C. gambianaR13
         |--MicrodonTRZ10
         |--EristalinaeTRZ10
         |    |  i. s.: AlipumilioTRZ10
         |    |           |--A. femoratusTRZ10
         |    |           `--A. nigrocoeruleusTRZ10
         |    |         Orthonevra pulchellaTRZ10, VT87
         |    |         Myolepta varipesTRZ10, VT87
         |    |         Quichuana angustiventrisTRZ10
         |    |         ChalcosyrphusTRZ10
         |    |           |--C. (Chalcosyrphus) depressusVT87
         |    |           `--C. (Neplas)TRZ10
         |    |                |--C. (N.) pauxillusVT87
         |    |                `--C. (N.) schildiTRZ10
         |    |         CriorhinaTRZ10
         |    |         NausigasterTRZ10
         |    |           |--N. meridionalisTRZ10
         |    |           `--N. punctulataTRZ10
         |    |         CalliceraTRZ10
         |    |           |--C. aenea [=Syrphus (Callicera) aenea]G20
         |    |           |--C. erraticaTRZ10
         |    |           `--C. poultoniTRZ10
         |    |         MilesiaTRZ10
         |    |           |--M. (Aphritis) apiariaG20
         |    |           |--M. crabroniformisR26
         |    |           |--M. nigraTRZ10
         |    |           |--M. (Milesia) pipiensG20
         |    |           |--M. pulchraTRZ10
         |    |           `--M. virginiensisVT87
         |    |         SpilomyiaTRZ10
         |    |         OrnidiaTRZ10
         |    |           |--O. majorTRZ10
         |    |           `--O. obesaTRZ10
         |    |         CopestylumTRZ10
         |    |         Sterphus (Sterphus) stimulansTRZ10
         |    |         Xylota barbataTRZ10, VT87
         |    |         Lepidomyia Bigot 1857TRZ10, B89
         |    |           `--L. micheneriTRZ10
         |    |         PalpadaTRZ10
         |    |           |--P. mexicanaTRZ10
         |    |           `--P. scutellarisTRZ10
         |    |         Habromyia coeruleithoraxTRZ10
         |    |         MeromacrusTRZ10
         |    |           |--M. acutusE66
         |    |           `--M. loewiTRZ10
         |    |         LycopaleTRZ10
         |    |           |--L. chrysotaeniaTRZ10
         |    |           `--L. wygodzinskyiTRZ10
         |    |         Teuchocnemis lituratusVT87
         |    |--EristaliniKS05
         |    |--CerioidiniTRZ10
         |    |--Merodon [Merodontini]TRZ10
         |    |    |--M. clavipes [=Milesia (Merodon) clavipes]G20
         |    |    |--M. equestrisVT87
         |    |    `--M. pumilus Macquart 1849E12
         |    |--Rhingia [Rhingiini]TRZ10
         |    |    |--R. nasicaVT87
         |    |    |--R. nigraTRZ10
         |    |    `--R. rostrataL02
         |    `--SericomyiaTRZ10 [Sericomyiina, SericomyiniKS05]
         |         |--S. (Sericomyia) lapponum [=Syrphus (S.) lapponum]G20
         |         `--S. (Arctophila)TRZ10
         |              |--S. (A.) fairmanorumTRZ10
         |              `--S. (A.) meyersiTRZ10
         `--SyrphinaeTRZ10
              |--SyrphusTRZ10
              |--TrichopsomyiaTRZ10
              |--Dasysyrphus tricinctusTRZ10, RD77
              |--Xanthandrus mexicanusTRZ10, VT87
              |--Pseudodoros clavatusTRZ10
              |--IschiodonVT87
              |--Parasyrphus tarsatusVT87
              |--Meliscaeva cinctellaVT87
              |--Leucopodella marmorataVT87
              |--Doros aequalisVT87
              |--Xanthogramma flavipesVT87
              |--Leucozona (Leucozona) lucorumVT87
              |--Scaeva pyrastriVT87
              |--Eriozona (Megasyrphus) erraticusVT87
              |--SphaerophoriaVT87
              |    |--S. contiguaTRZ10
              |    `--S. robustaE66
              |--Toxomerus [Toxomerini]TRZ10
              |    |--T. geminatusTRZ10
              |    `--T. politusTRZ10
              |--BacchaVT87
              |    |--B. elongataVT87
              |    `--B. norinaMM96
              |--DideaVT87
              |    |--D. alnetiK01
              |    `--D. fuscipesVT87
              |--EpistropheVT87
              |    |--E. (Epistrophe) grossulariaeVT87
              |    `--E. (Epistrophella) emarginataVT87
              |--MelangynaVT87
              |    |--M. (Melangyna) lasiophthalmaVT87
              |    `--M. (Austrosyrphus) novaezealandiaeM83
              |--DideomimaVT87
              |    |--D. coquillettiVT87
              |    `--D. vockerothiTRZ10
              |--MelanostomaVT87
              |    |--M. bellumTRZ10
              |    |--M. fasciatumBWT03
              |    `--M. mellinumTRZ10
              |--AllograptaTRZ10
              |    |--A. (Allograpta) armillataTRZ10
              |    |--A. exoticaTRZ10
              |    |--A. neotropicaTRZ10
              |    `--A. obliquaTRZ10
              |--EupeodesTRZ10
              |    |--E. (Eupeodes)VT87
              |    |    |--E. (E.) americanusVT87
              |    |    `--E. (E.) volucrisVT87
              |    `--E. (Lapposyrphus) lapponicusVT87
              |--OcyptamusTRZ10
              |    |  i. s.: O. wulpianusBR09
              |    `--O. (Mimocalla)TRZ10
              |         |--O. (M.) bonariensisTRZ10
              |         `--O. (M.) tristaniTRZ10
              |--PlatycheirusTRZ10
              |    |--P. brunnifrons Nielsen 2004F05
              |    |--P. caesius Nielsen & Stuke 2004F05
              |    |--P. clypeatusK01
              |    |--P. quadratusTRZ10
              |    `--P. stegnusVT87
              |--SalpingogasterVT87
              |    |--S. (Salpingogaster)TRZ10
              |    |    |--S. (S.) nigraTRZ10
              |    |    `--S. (S.) punctifronsTRZ10
              |    `--S. (Eosalpingogaster)TRZ10
              |         |--S. (E.) cochenillivorusTRZ10
              |         `--S. (E.) nepentheVT87
              |--ChrysotoxumTRZ10
              |    |--C. arcuatumR26
              |    |--C. bicinctumK01 [=Mulio bicinctusL02, Syrphus (Chrysotoxum) bicinctusG20]
              |    |--C. derivatumTRZ10
              |    |--C. festivumK01
              |    |--C. integreVT87
              |    |--C. sibiricumK01
              |    `--C. ypsilonE66
              `--ParagusTRZ10
                   |--P. algirus Macquart 1847E12
                   |--P. bicolorR26
                   |--P. (Pandasyophthalmus) haemorrhousTRZ10
                   |--P. lacerusK01
                   |--P. numida Macquart 1847E12
                   |--P. serratusTRZ10
                   |--P. (Paragus) thymastri [=Syrphus (P.) thymastri]G20
                   `--P. tibialisK01

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[B89] Bigot, J.-M.-F. 1889. Diptères nouveaux ou peu connus. 34e partie. XLII. Empidi. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 111–134.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BR09] Borkent, A., & G. Rotheray. 2009. Key to Diptera families—larvae. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 157–191. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[BWT03] Bowie, M., S. Wratten & J. Tylianakis. 2003. An introduction to entomological research on Kowhai Farm—the Heinz Wattie’s Organic Farm at Lincoln University. Weta 25: 18–23.

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[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E66] Evans, H. E. 1966. The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

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[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso “Esploratore” dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

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[H87] Hardy, D. E. 1987. Pipunculidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 745–748. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[KS05] Kotthoff, U., & U. Schmid. 2005. A new fossil hoverfly (Insecta, Diptera: Syrphidae) from the Randeck Maar (Early Miocene, south-west Germany). Palaeontology 48 (5): 1091–1096.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RS10] Rafael, J. A., & J. H. Skevington. 2010. Pipunculidae (big-headed flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 793–803. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[R78] Richards, O. W. 1978. The Australian social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 61: 1–132.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

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[TRZ10] Thompson, E. C., G. E. Rotheray & M. A. Zumbado. 2010. Syrphidae (flower flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 763–792. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[VT87] Vockeroth, J. R., & F. C. Thompson. 1987. Syrphidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 713–743. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

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[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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