Tabanini

Band-eyed brown horsefly Tabanus bromius, copyright Entomart.

Belongs within: Tabanidae.

The Tabanini are a cosmopolitan group of horse flies, most diverse in the Northern Hemisphere. The largest genus Tabanus is probably polyphyletic, being largely defined by the absence of characters found in other genera (Burger 2009). Some species of Tabanus grow quite large, up to three centimetres in length. A hook-like projection extends from the basal plate of the antennal flagellum in the genera Agkistrocerus and Hamatabanus, which also have sparsely hairy eyes (Pechuman & Teskey 1981).

Characters (from Pechuman & Teskey 1981): Scape barely longer than wide. Basicosta with macrotrichia similar in appearance and density to those on C. Hind tibia without apical spurs. Male gonostylus truncate. Ends of spermathecal ducts in female with mushroom-like expansions.

TabaniniB09
|--StyporhamphisM54
|--Atylotus incisuralisPT81
|--AbatylotusM54
|--PhyrtaM54
|--DasyrhamphisM54
|--EfflatounanusM54
|--Agkistrocerus megerleiPT81
|--Hamatabanus carolinensisPT81
|--Whitneyomyia beatificaPT81
|--LophotabanusM54
|--TaeniotabanusM54
|--EuancalaM54
|--AncalaM54
|--Poeciloderas quadripunctatusB09
|--TherioplectesM54
| |--T. tarandinusK01
| `--T. tropicusK01
|--HybomitraPT81
| |--H. captonisE66
| |--H. epistatesPT81
| |--H. fulvilateralisE66
| |--H. hineiE66
| | |--H. h. hineiE66
| | `--H. h. wrightiE66
| |--H. lasiophthalmaB09
| |--H. liorhinaE66
| |--H. opacaE66
| |--H. osburniE66
| |--H. phaenopsE66
| `--H. rhombicaM54
`--Tabanus Linnaeus 1758L58
|--T. abdominalisE66
|--T. albipesL02
|--T. americanusB09
|--T. antarcticus Linnaeus 1758L58
|--T. atratusWT11
|--T. autumnalisR26
|--T. bishoppiE66
|--T. bovinus Linnaeus 1758L58
|--T. bromius Linnaeus 1758L58
|--T. caecutiens Linnaeus 1758L58
|--T. calens Linnaeus 1758L58
|--T. ceylonicusM70b
|--T. cheliopterusE66
| |--T. c. cheliopterusE66
| `--T. c. frontoE66
|--T. coarctatusE66
|--T. endymionE66
|--T. exaestuans Linnaeus 1758L58
|--T. fervens Linnaeus 1758L58
|--T. (Glaucops) fratellusPT81
|--T. fumipennisE66
|--T. fuscicostatusA71
|--T. gracilisE66
|--T. imitansE66
|--T. lineolaPT81
|--T. maculicornisRD77
|--T. marginalisT90
|--T. melanocerusE66
| |--T. m. melanocerusE66
| `--T. m. lacustrisE66
|--T. mexicanus Linnaeus 1758L58
|--T. micansA71
|--T. mularisE66
|--T. nigrescensE66
|--T. nigripesE66
|--T. occidentalis Linnaeus 1758L58
|--T. particaecusM70a
|--T. petiolatusE66
|--T. productusE66
|--T. quinquevittatusE66
|--T. reinwardtiiT90
|--T. similisPT81
|--T. sorbillansE66
|--T. sparusE66
| |--T. s. sparusE66
| `--T. s. milleriE66
|--T. striatusA71
|--T. stygiusE66
|--T. subsimilisPT81
|--T. sudeticusK01
|--T. sulcifronsM90
|--T. tarandinus Linnaeus 1758L58
|--T. texanusBM76
|--T. trijunctusE66
|--T. trimaculatusE66
|--T. tropicus Linnaeus 1758L58
|--T. truquiiE66
`--T. vittigerPP72
|--T. v. vittigerE66
|--T. v. guatemalanusE66
`--T. v. schwardtiE66

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B09] Burger, J. F. 2009. Tabanidae (horse flies, deer flies, tabanos). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 495–507. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[E66] Evans, H. E. 1966. The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M54] Mackerras, I. M. 1954. The classification and distribution of Tabanidae (Diptera). I. General review. Australian Journal of Zoology 2 (3): 431–454.

[M70a] Mackerras, I. M. 1970a. Skeletal anatomy. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 3–28. Melbourne University Press.

[M70b] Mackerras, I. M. 1970b. Composition and distribution of the fauna. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 187–203. Melbourne University Press.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[PP72] Parkin, P., D. T. Parkin, A. W. Ewing & H. A. Ford. 1972. A report on the arthropods collected by the Edinburgh University Galapagos Islands expedition, 1968. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (2): 100–107.

[PT81] Pechuman, L. L., & H. J. Teskey. 1981. Tabanidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 463–478. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[T90] Teskey, H. J. 1990. Insecta: Diptera larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1253–1276. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

 

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *