Tachininae

Linnaemya vulpina, copyright Janet Graham.

Belongs within: Tachinidae.
Contains: Minthoini, Siphonini, Tachinini, Polideini, Nemoraeini.

The Tachininae are a group of parasitic flies that is poorly defined morphologically but strongly supported by molecular analysis. Members utilise a wide range of hosts with phylogenetic analysis suggesting an ancestral dependence on Lepidoptera (Stireman et al. 2019). Females possess a uterus and deposit eggs ready to hatch; the majority of species do not oviposit directly on the host itself but scatter eggs in suitable habitats. The larvae bear a covering of thickened platelets that protect them from desiccation and are able to wait to encounter a suitable host. Members of the genus Ormia that parasitise orthopterans locate singing males by means of tympanic organs on the enlarged prosternum and fire eggs in the direction of the sound (Wood & Zumbado 2010). Male terminalia of Tachininae usually have the surstyli widely separated and syntergosternite 7+8 is often large and bulbous (Wood 1987).

<==Tachininae [Ernestiini]
    |--+--+--GinglymiaSC19
    |  |  |    |--G. acrirostrisWZ10
    |  |  |    `--G. johnsoniSC19
    |  |  `--+--GraphogastriniSC19
    |  |     |    |--GraphogasterSC19
    |  |     |    |    |--G. brunneaW87
    |  |     |    |    |--G. dorsalisW87
    |  |     |    |    `--G. vestitaSC19
    |  |     |    `--PhytomypteraSC19
    |  |     |         |--P. aeneaSC19
    |  |     |         `--P. tarsalisWZ10
    |  |     `--EulasionaSC19
    |  |          |--E. apertaSC19
    |  |          `--E. comstockiWZ10
    |  `--MinthoiniSC19
    `--+--SiphoniniSC19
       `--+--Pelatachina [Pelatachinini]SC19
          |    |--P. pellucidaW87
          |    `--P. tibialisSC19
          `--+--TachininiSC19
             `--+--+--NeaeriniSC19
                |  |    |--Scomma gobicaC94
                |  |    `--NeaeraWZ10
                |  |         |--N. atraSC19
                |  |         |--N. leucopteraWZ10
                |  |         `--N. mirabilis [=Acronarista mirabilis]W87
                |  `--+--Germaria [Germariini]SC19
                |     |    |--G. angustataSC19
                |     |    `--G. hispanicaSC19
                |     `--MegaprosopiniSC19
                |          |--DexiosomaSC19
                |          `--+--+--TrichoprosopusSC19
                |             |  `--Acronacantha nubilipennisSC19, WZ10
                |             `--+--MicrophthalmaSC19
                |                |    |--M. disjunctaW87
                |                |    `--M. obsoletaSC19
                |                `--Megaprosopus regalisSC19 [=Cochisemyia regalisW87]
                `--+--ProscissioniniSC19
                   |    |--+--ProscissioSC19
                   |    |  `--Perrissina albicepsSC19
                   |    `--+--CampyliaSC19
                   |       `--+--ZealandotachinaSC19
                   |          `--HeteriaSC19
                   `--+--+--LoewiiniSC19
                      |  |    |--LoewiaSC19
                      |  |    |    |--L. erectaSC19
                      |  |    |    `--L. foedaW87 [=Fortisia foedaA71]
                      |  |    `--+--Germariochaeta [Germariochaetini]SC19
                      |  |       `--Eloceria nigraSC19
                      |  `--+--+--ChaetophthalmusSC19
                      |     |  `--Linnaemya Robineau-Desvoidy 1830SC19, F92 (see below for synonymy)
                      |     |       |--*L. vulpina (Fallén 1810)F92
                      |     |       |--L. comta Fallén 1810 (see below for synonymy)F92
                      |     |       |--L. tessellataWZ10
                      |     |       `--L. zachvatkini Zimin 1954F92
                      |     `--+--+--Hyalurgus Brauer & Bergenstamm 1893SC19, F92 (see below for synonymy)
                      |        |  |    |--*H. lucida (Meigen 1824)F92
                      |        |  |    |--H. crucigera Zetterstedt 1838HP-W05
                      |        |  |    `--H. sima Zimin 1960 [incl. H. spathulatus Mesnil 1967]F92
                      |        |  `--PanzeriaSC19 [incl. ErnestiaW87]
                      |        |       |--P. ampelusWZ10
                      |        |       `--P. johnsoniSC19
                      |        `--PolideiniSC19
                      `--+--NemoraeiniSC19
                         `--+--+--GymnochetaSC19
                            |  |    |--G. ruficornisSC19
                            |  |    `--G. viridis (Fallén 1810)KP10
                            |  `--+--Chrysosomopsis aurataSC19
                            |     `--+--+--Zophomyia temulaSC19
                            |        |  `--MelanophrysSC19
                            |        |       |--M. flavipennisW87
                            |        |       `--M. insolita [=Atropharista insolita]W87
                            |        `--Bombyliomyia sororSC19, WZ10
                            `--+--ChlorotachinaSC19
                               |    |--C. flavicepsSC19
                               |    `--C. froggattiiSC19
                               `--+--+--TriarthriaSC19
                                  |  |    |--T. parvaSC19
                                  |  |    |--T. setipennis (Fallén 1810)KP10
                                  |  |    `--T. spinipennisW87
                                  |  `--+--Ormia [Ormiini]SC19
                                  |     |    |--O. depletaWZ10
                                  |     |    `--O. dominicanaWZ10
                                  |     `--Brachelia westermanniSC19
                                  `--GlaurocariniSC19
                                       |--Glaurocara flavaSC19
                                       `--SemisuturiaSC19
                                            |--S. moffattensisSC19
                                            `--S. pallensSC19
Tachininae incertae sedis:
  Somoleja rebaptisataK01
  Ptilops chalybeataK01
  Plagiopsis sororK01
  Myiobia fenestrataK01
  Olivieria lateralisK01
  PlagiaK01
    |--P. curvinervisK01
    `--P. trepidaRD77
  Paralophora pusillaK01
  Syntomocera cristataK01
  Myiocera carinifronsK01
  EchinomyiaA71
    |--E. algira Macquart 1847E12
    |--E. feraA71
    `--E. grossa (Linnaeus 1758)G20, L58 [=Musca grossaG20]

Hyalurgus Brauer & Bergenstamm 1893SC19, F92 [incl. Microerigone Zimin 1960F92, Parastauferia Pokorny 1893F92]

Linnaemya Robineau-Desvoidy 1830SC19, F92 [incl. Bonnetia Robineau-Desvoidy 1830F92, Micropalpus Macquart 1834F92; Linnaemyini]

Linnaemya comta Fallén 1810 [incl. Micropalpus humeralis Robineau-Desvoidy 1863, Bonnetia longipes Robineau-Desvoidy 1830, B. oenanthis Robineau-Desvoidy 1830]F92

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[C94] Colless, D. H. 1994. A new family of muscoid Diptera from Australasia, with sixteen new species in four new genera (Diptera: Axiniidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 8: 471–534.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[HP-W05] Heitland, W., & H. Pschorn-Walcher. 2005. Biology and parasitoids of the peculiar alder sawfly, Platycampus luridiventris (Fallen) (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 215–231.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine’s fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[SC19] Stireman, J. O., III, P. Cerretti, J. E. O’Hara, J. D. Blaschke & J. K. Moulton. 2019. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of world Tachinidae (Diptera). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 139: 106358.

[W87] Wood, D. M. 1987. Tachinidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1193–1269. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WZ10] Wood, D. M., & M. A. Zumbado. 2010. Tachinidae (tachinid flies, parasitic flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1343–1417. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

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