Glyphyalinia Snails

North America (as with pretty much everywhere in the world outside the coldest regions) is home to a wide diversity of small, terrestrial snails that tend to pass unnoticed. Among the more diverse of these is the zonitid genus Glyphyalinia. Glyphyalinia carolinensis, copyright John Slapcinsky. Glyphyalinia species are often found in forest leaf-litter in the… Continue reading Glyphyalinia Snails


Lateral view of each valve of Pandora inaequivalvis, from Doğan et al. (2007). Belongs within: Pholadomyoida. The Pandoroidea are a group of sedentary or burrowing bivalves with a thin, inequivalve, somewhat elongate or gaping shell. Pandoroidea [Pandoracea] GW02     |–Laternulidae H96     |    |–Cercomya [Cercomyidae] SB93     |    |    `–C. (Cercomya) praecursor SB93     |    `–Laternula KC11 [Laternulidae H96]     |         |–L. anatina (Linnaeus… Continue reading Pandoroidea


Congeria subglobosa, copyright Naturhistorisches Museum Wien. Belongs within: Neoheterodontei. The Dreissenidae are a group of mussel-like bivalves found living in estuarine habitats. Characters (from Pilsbry & Bequaert 1927): Shell mytiliform with anterior, nearly or quite terminal beaks, without a nacreous layer within. Small septum (myophore of anterior adductor) across beak cavity. Ligament immersed. Posterior adductor… Continue reading Dreissenidae


Neritoplica trochispira, from Bandel & Kiel (2003). Belongs within: Neritoidea. Contains: Nerita. The Neritidae are marine gastropods characterised by a shell with dissolved inner whorls and radula with large, smooth, mineralised lateral teeth with a cutting and scraping edge (Bandel 2001). Neritidae [Neritae, Neritinia] |–Velates Montfort 1810 [Velatinae] BR05 |    |–V. schmiedelianus Chemnitz 1886 B01 (see… Continue reading Neritidae


Unela remanei, from Arnaud et al. (1986). Length = 3 mm. Belongs within: Heterobranchia. The Acochlidimorpha are a group of small, mostly aquatic slugs that usually bear a large visceral hump projecting freely from the headfoot. <==Acochlidimorpha (see below for synonymy) |–Acochlidioidea [Strubellioidea, Strubellioidei] BR17 |    |–Pseudunela Salvini-Plawen 1973 [Pseudunelidae, Pseudunelloidea] BR05 |    |    `–*P. cornuta (Challis 1970)… Continue reading Acochlidimorpha


White-sand macoma Macoma secta, photographed by Jan Delsing. Belongs within: Tellinoidea. Macoma is a cosmopolitan genus of bivalves with an inaequilateral, mostly thin shell with a deciduous periostracum and a slightly twisted posterior end. <==Macoma Leach 1819 [Macominae] F26 |–M. balthica T95 |    |–M. b. balthica TW07 |    `–M. b. rubra (da Costa 1778) TW07 |–M. calcarea… Continue reading Macoma


Cingula katherinae, copyright Yolanda Villacampa. Belongs within: Rissooidea. Cingula is a genus of minute marine gastropods with a conical shell found in the North Pacific and North Atlantic (Oldroyd 1927). Characters (from Oldroyd 1927): Shell minute, white or horny; conical, pointed, many-whorled; smooth or cancellated; aperture rounded; peristome entire, continuous; outer lip slightly expanded and… Continue reading Cingula


Yellow dove shellPyrene flava, copyright H. Zell. Belongs within: Columbellidae. Pyrene is a genus of dove snails bearing a biconical shell with a strong spiral subsutural cord on early whorls and a crenulated interior on the outer lip. <==Pyrene Röding 1798 BR05 |–*P. rhombiferum Röding 1798 BR17 |–P. abyssicola (Brazier 1877) [=Columbella abyssicola] H09 |–P.… Continue reading Pyrene


Common octopusOctopus vulgaris, copyright Kevin Bryant. Belongs within: Octopodidae. Octopus is a diverse genus of benthic octopuses with biserial suckers and a large crop. The genus may be divided between a number of morphologically distinct groups but its taxonomy remains uncertain owing to the unclear identity of the type species (O’Shea 1999). <==Octopus Lamarck 1798… Continue reading Octopus


Diplodonta globus, copyright Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Belongs within: Neoheterodontei. The Ungulinidae are a group of infaunal bivalves commonly found in muddy sand or gravel. Members have rounded shells with a low beak, the external sculpture being smooth, punctate or concentrically ribbed. Ungulinidae [Diplodontidae, Ungulinoidea]     |  i. s.: Phlyctiderma (Phlyctiderma) discrepans (Carpenter 1857) PP78… Continue reading Ungulinidae