Arrow Poison and Arrow without Poison

Central and South America are home to a remarkable diversity of frogs, coming in nearly all the shapes and sizes a frog can possibly come in. Among this diversity, probably the most famous representatives are the arrow-poison frogs of the Dendrobatidae. Two dendrobatid frogs of two different subfamilies: dyeing dart frog Dendrobates tinctorius (Dendrobatinae, left)… Continue reading Arrow Poison and Arrow without Poison

Sphenacodontidae

Pair of mounted skeletons of Dimetrodon, copyright D’Arcy Norman. Belongs within: Synapsida. Contains: Therapsida. The Sphenacodontidae are a group of carnivorous ‘pelycosaurs’ known from the later Carboniferous to the Middle Permian, suggested by Kemp (1988) to be paraphyletic to the therapsids. <==Sphenacodontidae K88 |  i. s.: Secodontosaurus BH04 |         Sphenacodon Marsh 1878 D07 |           |–S. ferocior… Continue reading Sphenacodontidae

Hueneosauria

Reconstruction of Cymbospondylus natans, copyright Teratophoneus. Belongs within: Ichthyosauria. Contains: Thunnosauria. The Hueneosauria are a clade of ichthyosaurs defined by Maisch & Matzke (2000) as the most exclusive clade including Mixosaurus cornalianus and Ophthalmosaurus icenicus. Synapomorphies (from Maisch & Matzke 2000): External naris placed largely laterally; anterior margin of orbit regularly rounded; ramus occipitalis of… Continue reading Hueneosauria

Ichthyosauria

Reconstruction of Grippia longirostris, copyright Dmitry Bogdanov. Belongs within: Reptilia. Contains: Hueneosauria. The Ichthyosauria are a major clade of marine reptiles known from the Lower Triassic to the lower Upper Cretaceous, members of which evolved a remarkably fish-like body form (Maisch & Matzke 2000). Characters (from Maisch & Matzke 2000): Premaxillary rostrum elongate; naris displaced… Continue reading Ichthyosauria

Procolophonia

Reconstruction of Pareiasaurus serridens, copyright Nobu Tamura. Belongs within: Parareptilia. The Procolophonia are a clade of reptiles known from the mid-Permian to the late Triassic, including the large armoured Pareiasauria and the lizard-like Procolophonoidea. Some authors have also included the modern turtles in this clade. Synapomorphies (from Laurin & Reisz 1995): Pineal foramen close to… Continue reading Procolophonia

Trematosauria

Reconstruction of Metoposaurus krasiejowensis, copyright Dmitry Bogdanov. Belongs within: Stereospondylomorpha. The Trematosauria are a clade of temnospondyls defined by Yates & Warren (2000) as including all species closer to Trematosaurus than Parotosuchus. Synapomorphies (from Yates & Warren 2000): Interorbital space greater than 50% of skull width at mid orbital level; stapedial foramen absent; sharp rimmed… Continue reading Trematosauria

Parareptilia

Reconstruction of Milleretta rubidgei, copyright Nobu Tamura. Belongs within: Reptilia. Contains: Procolophonia. The Parareptilia are a clade corresponding to the greater part of the previously recognised ‘Anapsida’ group of reptiles lacking a temporal fenestra in the skull. They are known from the Upper Permian and Triassic; their survival after this time depends on whether the… Continue reading Parareptilia

Arthroleptinae

Female Arthroleptis reichei, copyright Vincenzo Mercurio. Belongs within: Laurentobatrachia. The Arthroleptinae are a group of frogs found in sub-Saharan Africa, males of which often have hyperelongate third fingers. <==Arthroleptinae [Arthroleptina, Arthroleptini] FG06     |–Coracodichus FG06     |–Cardioglossa Boulenger 1900 FG06     |    |–+–C. gracilis PW11     |    |  `–C. schioetzi PW11     |    `–+–C. elegans PW11     |       `–+–C. gratiosa PW11     |          `–+–+–C. leucomystax PW11     |            … Continue reading Arthroleptinae

Laurentobatrachia

Peacock tree frog Leptopelis vermiculatus, copyright Dawson. Belongs within: Ranoidea. Contains: Arthroleptinae, Hyperolius, Heterixalus. The Laurentobatrachia are a clade of frogs found in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar. Characters (from Frost et al. 2006): Larval m. levator manidbulae externus in two portion; commissura proximalis III absent; intercalary elements absent; external metatarsal tubercle poorly developed or absent;… Continue reading Laurentobatrachia