Teleostei

 Fossil of Pholidophorus bechei in the Urwelt-Museum Hauff Holzmaden, photographed by Ghedoghedo.

Belongs within: Neopterygii.
Contains: Pachycormidae, Elopomorpha, Osteoglossocephalai.

The Teleostei are a clade including the majority of living ray-finned fishes. Teleosts are characterised by the presence of one or more uroneurals, modifications of the vertebral neural arches that support the caudal fin. Early members include the Mesozoic Pholidophoriformes, small fishes up to forty centimetres long that retain plesiomorphic features such as ganoid scales and enamel on the skull bones. The Triassic Leptolepidae possess more ossified vertebrae than Pholidophoriformes and bear cycloid scales (Bond 1996).

Synapomorphies (from Friedman et al. 2010): Internal carotid foramen present through parasphenoid; symplectic articulation on inner medial surface of quadrate; uroneurals present; pectoral propterygium fused to first pectoral fin-ray.

<==Teleostei [Archaeophylaces, Isospondyli, Malacopterygii, Teleosteomorpha]
    |--+--PachycormidaeFS10
    |  |--Tetragonolepis semicinctaGX17
    |  `--DapediidaeG93
    |       |--Dapedium pholidotumA01, GX17
    |       |--Dandya White & Moy-Thomas 1940G93
    |       |--Prohalecites Deeke 1889G93
    |       `--Heterostrophus Wagner 1860G93
    `--+--Ichthyokentemidae [Catervariolidae, Galkiniidae]P93
       |    |--Ichthyokentema purbeckensis (Davis 1887)GX17, P93
       |    |--CatervariolusG88
       |    |--Elpistoichthys pectinatus Griffith 1977P93
       |    `--Ceramurus macrocephalus Egerton 1854P93
       |--PholidophoriformesB96
       |    |  i. s.: Seefeldia watsoniD01
       |    |         Pholidolepis africanaD01
       |    |--PleuropholisP93 [Ligulellidae, Majokiidae, PleuropholidaeG88]
       |    |    |--P. decastroi Bravi 1991P93
       |    |    `--P. thiollieri Sauvage 1883P93
       |    `--Pholidophoridae [Archaeomenidae]AS09
       |         |--Pholidophoretes salvus Griffith 1977P93
       |         |--Gurvanichthys mongoliensisV-RR93
       |         |--Archaeomaene tenuis Woodward 1895F71
       |         |--Neopholidophoropsis serrata Taverne 1981P93
       |         |--Wadeichthys oxyops Waldman 1971P93
       |         |--PholidophoristionP93
       |         |    |--P. ornatus (Agassiz 1844)P93
       |         |    `--P. spaethi Taverne 1981P93
       |         `--PholidophorusFS10
       |              |--P. becheiFS10
       |              |--P. germanicusFS10
       |              |--P. latisculusA01
       |              `--P. macrocephalusFS10
       `--+--+--Dorsetichthys becheiGX17
          |  `--Leptolepidae [Koonwarriidae, Leptolepididae, Leptolepidiformes, Leptolepimorpha]D01
          |       |--Koonwarria manifrons Waldman 1971P93
          |       |--Proleptolepis Nybelin 1974D01
          |       |    |--P. elongataD01
          |       |    |--P. furcataD01
          |       |    `--P. megalopsD01
          |       `--LeptolepisA01
          |            |--L. coryphaenoidesFS10
          |            |--L. koonwarri Waldman 1971P93
          |            |--L. normandicaD01
          |            `--L. talbragarensis Woodward 1895 [incl. L. gregarius Woodward 1895, L. lowei Woodward 1895]F71
          `--+--VarasichthyidaeA01
             `--+--Teleocephala [Elopocephala]A01
                |    |  i. s.: ProtostomiatidaeP93
                |    |           |--Protostomias maroccanus Arambourg 1954P93
                |    |           `--Pronotacanthus Woodward 1900P93, W00
                |    |                `--*P. sahelalmae (Davis 1887) [=Anguilla sahelalmae]W00
                |    |--ElopomorphaFS10
                |    `--OsteoglossocephalaiFS10
                `--Ichthyodectidae [Icthyodectiformes, Ichthyodectoidei]A01
                     |--Xiphactinus Leidy 1870P93, FS10
                     |--GillicusP93
                     |--CladocyclusG88
                     |    |--C. gardneriBWW93
                     |    `--C. sweetiF71
                     `--ThrissopsP93
                          |--T. formosus Agassiz 1833P93
                          `--T. subovatus Münster 1833P93
Teleostei incertae sedis:
  Ascalabos viothiiFS10
  Telestes pleurobipunctatusKKV03
  Membras martinicusK-M02
  TselfatoidiformesB96
  Platypoecilus maculatusD37
  Palaeolabrus [Palaeolabridae]G88
  SiyuichthyidaeP93
  Allothrissops [Allothrissopidae]P93
    |--A. mesogaster (Agassiz 1833)P93
    |--A. regleyi (Thollière 1854)P93
    `--A. salmoneus (Blainville 1818)P93
  SaurodontidaeP93
    |--Saurodon intermedius (Newton 1878)P93
    `--Saurocephalus lanciformis Harlan 1824P93
  Molinichthys inopinatus Gayet 1982P93
  Protaulopsis bolcensis Woodward 1901P93
  Aidachar paludalis Nessov 1981B93
  Neocybium rostratum Leriche 1908F91

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AS09] Alfaro, M. E., F. Santini, C. Brock, H. Alamillo, A. Dornburg, D. L. Rabosky, G. Carnevale & L. J. Harmon. 2009. Nine exceptional radiations plus high turnover explain species diversity in jawed vertebrates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (32): 13410–13414.

[A01] Arratia, G. 2001. The sister-group of Teleostei: consensus and disagreements. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 (4): 767–773.

[B93] Benton, M. J. 1993. Reptilia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 681–715. Chapman & Hall: London.

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[BWW93] Briggs, D. E. G., M. J. Weedon & M. A. Whyte. 1993. Arthropoda (Crustacea excluding Ostracoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 321–342. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D01] Delsate, D. 2001. L’ichthyofaune du Pliensbachian (Jurassique inferieur) de Lorraine et des Ardennes (France): premiers resultats. Bulletin de l’Académie Lorraine des Sciences 40 (1–2): 47–69.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F91] Freess, W. B. 1991. Beiträge zur Kenntnis von Fauna und Flora des marinen Mitteloligozäns bei Leipzig. Altenburger Naturwissenschaftliche Forschungen 6: 3–74.

[FS10] Friedman, M., K. Shimada, L. D. Martin, M. J. Everhart, J. Liston, A. Maltese & M. Triebold. 2010. 100-million-year dynasty of giant planktivorous bony fishes in the Mesozoic seas. Science 327: 990–993.

[G93] Gardiner, B. G. 1993. Osteichthyes: basal actinopterygians. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 611–619. Chapman & Hall: London.

[GX17] Giles, S., G.-H. Xu, T. J. Near & M. Friedman. 2017. Early members of ‘living fossil’ lineage imply later origin of modern ray-finned fishes. Nature 549: 265–268.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[K-M02] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Jacks. Family Carangidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 411–427. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[KKV03] Kontula, T., S. V. Kirilchik & R. Väinölä. 2003. Endemic diversification of the monophyletic cottoid fish species flock in Lake Baikal explored with mtDNA sequencing. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 27: 143–155.

[P93] Patterson, C. 1993. Osteichthyes: Teleostei. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 621–656. Chapman & Hall: London.

[V-RR93] Vickers-Rich, P., & T. H. Rich. 1993. The ICI Australia Catalogue of the Great Russian Dinosaurs Exhibition 1993–1995. Monash University.

[W00] Woodward, A. S. 1900. Evidence of an extinct eel (Urenchelys anglicus, sp. n.) from the English Chalk. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 321–323, pl. 9.

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