Temnotrema maculatum, from here.

Belongs within: Echinacea.

The Temnopleuroida are a group of echinoids with a camarodont lantern known from the Lower Jurassic to the present (Fell & Pawson 1966).

Characters (from Fell & Pawson 1966): Lantern camarodont (unknown in Glyphocyphidae). Test usually sculptured with ridges (epistroma) or sutural depressions or both, at least in immature stages; if test not sculptured, then gill slits very deep and conspicuous. Radioles solid.

<==Temnopleuroida [Temnopleurina]
    |  i. s.: Gagaria Duncan 1889 [incl. Leiopleurus Lambert 1902]FP66
    |           |--*G. venustula (Duncan & Sladen 1884) [=Micropsis venustula]FP66
    |           |--G. mossomiFP66
    |           `--‘Psammechinus’ orbignyi Cotteau 1883 [=*Leiopleurus orbignyi]FP66
    |--Glyphocyphidae [Glyphocyphinae]FP66
    |    |--Arachniopleurus Duncan & Sladen 1882FP66
    |    |    `--*A. reticulatus Duncan & Sladen 1882FP66
    |    |--Glyptodiadema Pomel 1883FP66
    |    |    `--*G. cayluxense (Cotteau 1880) [=Pseudodiadema cayluxense]FP66
    |    |--Progonechinus Duncan & Sladen 1882FP66
    |    |    `--*P. eocenicus Duncan & Sladen 1882FP66
    |    |--Radiocyphus Cotteau 1890FP66
    |    |    `--*R. villanovae Cotteau 1890FP66
    |    |--Dictyopleurus Duncan & Sladen 1882FP66
    |    |    |--*D. ziczac Duncan & Sladen 1882FP66
    |    |    `--D. haimeiFP66
    |    |--Echinopsis Agassiz 1840 [incl. Hebertia Michelin 1859]FP66
    |    |    |--*E. elegans (Desmoulins 1837) [=Echinus elegans]FP66
    |    |    `--E. parisiensis (Michelin 1859) [=*Hebertia parisiensis]FP66
    |    |--Glyphocyphus Haime 1853FP66
    |    |    |--*G. (Glyphocyphus) radiatus (Hoeninghaus 1826) [=Echinus radiatus]FP66
    |    |    `--G. (Rhabdopleurus Cotteau 1893) [=Cryptocyphus Lambert & Thiéry 1914]FP66
    |    |         `--G. (*R.) ataxensis Cotteau 1886 [=*Cryptocyphus ataxensis]FP66
    |    |--Hemidiadema Agassiz 1846FP66
    |    |    |--*H. rugosum Agassiz 1846FP66
    |    |    |--H. intermediumFP66
    |    |    `--H. neocomiense (Cotteau 1882)SG93
    |    `--Ambipleurus Lambert 1932 [incl. Medochechinus Jeannet 1935]FP66
    |         |--*A. douvillei (Lambert 1824) [=Dictyopleurus douvillei]FP66
    |         |--A. darchiaciFP66
    |         |--A. darguiniFP66
    |         `--*Medochechinus’ fabrei Jeannet 1935FP66
    |    |--Trigonocidaris Agassiz 1869FP66
    |    |    |--*T. albida Agassiz 1869FP66
    |    |    `--T. microporaFP66
    |    `--Ortholophus Duncan 1887MM22
    |         |--*O. lineatus (Duncan 1877) [=Temnechinus lineatus]MM22
    |         |--O. bittneri Philip 1969MM22
    |         |--O. morganensis Philip 1969MM22
    |         |--O. pulchellusMM22
    |         |--O. venustus Philip 1969MM22
    |         `--O. woodsiMM22
         |--Mespilia Desor 1846FP66
         |    `--*M. globulus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Echinus globulus]FP66
         |--Asterechinus Mortensen 1942FP66
         |    `--*A. elegans Mortensen 1942FP66
         |--Erbechinus Jeannet 1935FP66
         |    `--*E. erbi Jeannet 1935FP66
         |--Genocidaris Agassiz 1869FP66
         |    `--*G. maculata Agassiz 1869FP66
         |--Goniosigma Fell 1964FP66
         |    `--*G. enysi (Hutton 1873) [=Echinus enysi]FP66
         |--Grammechinus Duncan & Sladen 1885FP66
         |    `--*G. regularis Duncan & Sladen 1885FP66
         |--Graphepleurus Clark 1945 [=Graphechinus (l. c.)]FP66
         |    `--*G. granularis Clark 1945FP66
         |--Hypsiechinus Mortensen 1903FP66
         |    `--*H. coronatus Mortensen 1903FP66
         |--Irenechinus Fell 1964FP66
         |    `--*I. hentyi Fell 1964FP66
         |--Lamprechinus Döderlein 1905FP66
         |    `--*L. nitidus Döderlein 1905FP66
         |--Leiocyphus Cotteau 1866FP66
         |    `--*L. conjunctus (Agassiz 1840) [=Arbacia conjuncta]FP66
         |--Martinechinus Jeannet 1937FP66
         |    `--*M. molengraaffi Jeannet 1937FP66
         |--Orechinus Döderlein 1905FP66
         |    `--*O. monolini (Agassiz 1879) [=Trigonocidaris monolini]FP66
         |--Paratrema Koehler 1927FP66
         |    `--*P. doederleini (Mortensen 1904) [=Pleurechinus doederleini]FP66
         |--Printechinus Koehler 1927FP66
         |    `--*P. impressus Koehler 1927FP66
         |--Prionechinus Agassiz 1879FP66
         |    `--*P. sagittiger Agassiz 1879FP66
         |--Pseudarbacina Fourtau 1920FP66
         |    `--*P. fraasi (Gauthier in Fourtau 1902) [=Arbacina fraasi]FP66
         |--Pseudodicoptella Jeannet 1935FP66
         |    `--*P. reicheli Jeannet 1935FP66
         |--Salmaciella Mortensen 1942FP66
         |    `--*S. dussumieri (Agassiz 1846) [=Salmacis dussumieri]FP66
         |--Temnechinus Forbes 1852FP66
         |    `--*T. excavatus Forbes 1852FP66
         |--Zeuglopleurus Gregory 1889FP66
         |    `--*Z. costulatus Gregory 1889FP66
         |--Glyptechinus de Loriol 1873FP66
         |    |--*G. rochati de Loriol 1873FP66
         |    `--G. montmolini (Desor 1858)SG93
         |--Salmacis Agassiz 1841FP66 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--*S. bicolor Agassiz 1841FP66
         |    `--S. sphaeroides (Linnaeus 1758)SM15 [=Echinus sphaeroidesFP66; incl. *Melebosis mirabilis Girard 1850FP66]
         |--Amblypneustes Agassiz 1841FP66
         |    |--*A. ovum (Lamarck 1816) [=Echinus ovum]FP66
         |    `--A. pachistusFP66
         |--Arbacina Pomel 1869FP66
         |    |--*A. monilis (Desmarest 1816) [=Echinus monilis]FP66
         |    `--A. romanaFP66
         |--Desmechinus Clark 1923 [incl. Javanechinus Jeannet 1935]FP66
         |    |--*D. anomalus Clark 1923FP66
         |    `--*Javanechinus’ rembangensis Jeannet 1935FP66
         |--Echinocyphus Cotteau 1860FP66
         |    |--*E. tenuistriatus (Desor 1857) [=Glyphocyphus tenuistriatus]FP66
         |    `--E. matronensisFP66
         |--Holopneustes Agassiz 1841FP66
         |    |--*H. porosissimus Agassiz 1841FP66
         |    `--H. inflatusFP66
         |--Leptopleurus Lambert & Thiéry 1910 (see below for synonymy)FP66
         |    |--*L. hemisphaericus (Duncan & Sladen 1885) [=*Lepidopleurus hemisphaericus]FP66
         |    `--L. balliFP66
         |--Paradoxechinus Laube 1869 [incl. Coptechinus Cotteau 1883]FP66
         |    |--*P. novus Laube 1869FP66
         |    `--P. bardini (Cotteau 1883) [=*Coptechinus bardini]FP66
         |--Scolechinus Lambert & Thiéry 1925FP66
         |    |--*S. dallonii Lambert & Thiéry 1925FP66
         |    `--S. catenataFP66
         |--Brochopleurus Fourtau 1920FP66
         |    |--*B. stellulatus (Duncan & Sladen 1886) [=Temnechinus stellulatus]FP66
         |    |--B. gajensisFP66
         |    `--B. sadekiFP66
         |--Pseudechinus Mortensen 1903 [incl. Notechinus Döderlein 1905]FP66
         |    |--*P. albocinctus (Hutton 1872) [=Echinus albocinctus]FP66
         |    |--P. flemingiFP66
         |    `--‘Echinus’ magellanicus Philippi 1857 [=*Notechinus magellanicus]FP66
         |--Triplacidia Bittner 1891 [incl. Acrocircus Lambert 1911]FP66
         |    |--*T. veronensis (Bittner 1883) [=Micropsis veronensis]FP66
         |    |--T. biarritzensis (Cotteau 1863) [=Micropsis biarritzensis, *Acrocircus biarritzensis]FP66
         |    |--T. fraasiFP66
         |    `--T. stacheiFP66
         |--Temnopleurus Agassiz 1841 (see below for synonymy)FP66
         |    |    i. s.: T. alexandri (Bell 1884)SM15
         |    |           *Prymnechinus’ proctalis Koehler 1927FP66
         |    |--*T. (Temnopleurus) toreumatica (Leske 1778) [=Cidaris toreumatica]FP66
         |    `--T. (Toreumatica Gray 1855) [incl. Coptopleura Ikeda 1940]FP66
         |         |--T. (*T.) reevesi (Gray 1855) [=*Toreumatica reevesi]FP66
         |         `--*Coptopleura’ sema Ikeda 1940FP66
         |--Opechinus Desor 1856 [=Pseudopechinus Lambert & Thiéry 1910; incl. Trumechinus Lambert & Thiéry 1910]FP66
         |    |--*O. costatus (d’Archiac & Haime 1853) [=Temnopleurus costatus, *Pseudopechinus costatus]FP66
         |    |--*Trumechinus’ batheri Lambert & Thiéry 1910FP66
         |    |--O. gerthiFP66
         |    |--O. hookeriFP66
         |    `--O. rousseauiFP66
         |--Microcyphus Agassiz 1846 [incl. Anthechinus Agassiz 1863, Salmacopsis Döderlein 1885]FP66
         |    |--*M. macalatus Agassiz 1846FP66
         |    |--M. annulatus Mortensen 1904MG-H11
         |    |--M. javanusFP66
         |    |--M. keiensis Mortensen 1942MG-H11
         |    |--*Salmacopsis’ olivacea Döderlein 1885FP66
         |    `--*Anthechinus’ roseus Agassiz 1863FP66
         |--Temnotrema Agassiz 1863 [incl. Dicoptella Lambert 1907, Paradicoptella Jeannet 1935]FP66
         |    |--*T. sculptum Agassiz 1863 [incl. *Dicoptella agassizi Lambert 1907]FP66
         |    |--T. bothyroides (Agassiz 1846)SM15
         |    |--T. elegans Mortensen 1918BM09
         |    |--T. maculatum (Mortensen 1904)MG-H11
         |    |--T. pulchellumFP66
         |    |--*Paradicoptella’ rutteni Jeannet 1935FP66
         |    |--T. scillae (Mazzetti 1894)MG-H11
         |    `--T. siamense (Mortensen 1904)MG-H11
         `--Tatechinus nudusMM22

Leptopleurus Lambert & Thiéry 1910 [=Lepidopleurus Duncan & Sladen 1885 nec Risso 1826 nec Claparède 1868 nec Carpenter in Dall 1879]FP66

Salmacis Agassiz 1841FP66 [incl. Diploporus Troschel 1866FP66, Melebosis Girard 1850FP66, Malebosis (l. c.)FP66, Melobosis Girard 1851A66]

Temnopleurus Agassiz 1841 [incl. Prymnechinus Koehler 1927, Temnotrema Lambert & Jeannet 1935 non Agassiz 1863]FP66

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A66] Anon. 1966. Doubtful nominal genera of echinoids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U633. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[BM09] Bryce, C., & L. Marsh. 2009. Echinodermata (Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea) of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 209–220.

[FP66] Fell, H. B., & D. L. Pawson. 1966. Echinacea. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U367–U440. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[MM22] McNamara, K. J., & S. Martin. 2022. Middle Eocene echinoids from the western Eucla Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 37: 31–56.

[SM15] Sampey, A., & L. M. Marsh. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: echinoderms. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 207–246.

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

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