Tenebrionoidea

Penthe obliquata, copyright Jeffrey Shultz.

Belongs within: Coleoptera.
Contains: Stenotrachelidae, Ripiphoridae, Mycteridae, Scraptiidae, Monommatidae, Lymexylidae, Mordellidae, Meloidae, Anthicidae, Tenebrionidae, Zopheridae, Pyrochroidae, Boridae, Aderidae, Tetratomidae, Ciidae, Melandryidae, Salpingidae, Oedemeridae, Mycetophagidae, Eustrophinae, Ulodidae.

The Tenebrionoidea are a clade of beetles characterised by the possession of a heteromeroid aedeagus, with the ventral portion of the tegmen desclerotised so that its sclerotised portion lies entirely above the penis (though the aedeagus may be rotated in some families so the sclerotised portion appears ventral). Representatives commonly have fewer tarsomeres in the hind than in the fore and mid legs, with a tarsal formula of 5-5-4 (Lawrence & Britton 1991).

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Fore coxae tending to be conical and projecting or partly concealed by pronotal cowling, trochantins tending to be reduced and/or concealed, trochanterofemoral attachment strongly oblique, tarsal formula 5-5-4 (sometimes reduced to 4-4-4), number of wing veins behind MP reduced to 4 or fewer, heteromeroid aedeagus in which incomplete tegmen lies above penis (orientation sometimes reversed). Larvae with fewer than 6 stemmata on each side, mala blunt, mandibular prostheca absent, 10th segment transverse or somewhat rectangular but not forming cylindrical pygopod.

<==Tenebrionoidea [Cisteleniae, Helopii, Hemipeplides, Heteromera, Macrogastri, Mordellonae, Pyrochroides]
    |--+--LymexylidaeRS15
    |  `--+--Rhizonium antiquumMW15
    |     `--+--MordellidaeRS15
    |        `--MeloidaeMW15
    `--+--+--AnthicidaeRS15
       |  `--TenebrionidaeRS15
       `--+--+--ZopheridaeRS15
          |  `--+--+--PyrochroidaeMW15
          |     |  `--BoridaeRS15
          |     `--+--AderidaeRS15
          |         `--+--TetratomidaeRS15
          |            `--PterogeniidaeMW15
          |                 |--Histanocerus fleaglei Lawrence 1977B14
          |                 |--TychogeniusMW15
          |                 `--PterogeniusB14
          |                      |--P. besuchetiB14
          |                      `--P. nietneri Candèze 1861B14
          `--+--+--CiidaeRS15
             |  `--MelandryidaeMW15
             `--+--+--+--SalpingidaeRS15
                |  |  `--TrictenotomidaeMW15
                |  |       |--Trictenotoma childreni Gray 1832MW15, B14
                |  |       `--AutocratesB14
                |  `--+--Lagrioida [Lagrioidinae]MW15
                |     |    `--L. australisLB91
                |     `--+--OedemeridaeRS15
                |        `--Prostomidae [Prostominae]MW15
                |             |--Dryocora howittiB14, ED04
                |             `--Prostomis Latreille 1838Y02b
                |                  |--P. americanusB14
                |                  `--P. mandibularis (Fabricius 1801)B14
                `--+--+--MycetophagidaeRS15
                   |  `--ArcheocrypticidaeMW15
                   |       |--Archeocrypticus topaliMW15
                   |       |--EnneboeopsisLB91
                   |       |--Wattianus queenslandicusLB91
                   |       |--SivacrypticusLB91
                   |       `--Enneboeus Waterhouse 1878 [incl. Uloporus Casey 1889]Y02a
                   |            `--E. caseyi Kaszab 1981Y02a
                   `--+--+--EustrophinaeMW15
                      |  `--PenthinaeYP02
                      |       |--Cyanopenthe Nikitsky 1998YP02
                      |       `--Penthe Newman 1838MW15, YP02
                      |            |--P. obliquata (Fabricius 1801)B14
                      |            `--P. pimeliaMW15
                      `--+--ChalcodryidaeMW15
                         |    |--Chalcodrya variegata Redtenbacher 1868MW15, B14
                         |    |--PhilpottiaB14
                         |    `--OnysiusB14
                         `--+--UlodidaeMW15
                            `--Parahelopinae [Promecheilidae]LB91
                                 |--Melytra ovata Pascoe 1869LB91, M86
                                 `--ParahelopsMW15
Tenebrionoidea incertae sedis:
  PerimylopidaeLB91
  Hallominus bipunctatusL02
  Epilampus chalybeatusB35
  CononotidaeRD77
  Calostegia Westwood 1842W42
    `--*C. purpuripennis Westwood 1842W42
  Nesioticus Westwood 1842W42
    `--*N. flavopictus Westwood 1842W42
  Ogcosoma Westwood 1842W42
    `--*O. granulare Westwood 1842W42
  Megacantha Westwood 1842W42
    `--*M. tenebrosa Westwood 1842W42
  StenotrachelidaeMW15
  ProstominiinaeMW15
    |--Rhopalocryptus pulcher Arrow 1929L03
    |--TrogocryptoidesL03
    |--ProstominiaLB91
    |--SzekessyaLB91
    `--OcholissaMW15
         |--O. humeralisLB91
         `--O. leaiB70
  RipiphoridaeMW15
  MycteridaeMW15
  Polypria Chevrolat 1874MW15, P02 [Polypriinae]
    `--P. cruxrufaP02
  ScraptiidaeMW15
  MonommatidaeMW15
  SynchroidaeMW15
    |--Synchroa Newman 1838Y02c
    |    `--S. punctata Newman 1838Y02c
    `--Mallodrya Horn 1888Y02c
         `--M. subaenea Horn 1888Y02c

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville. Faune entomologique de l’océan Pacifique, avec l’illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[ED04] Ewers, R. M., & R. K. Didham. 2004. A first assessment of New Zealand beetles restricted to large forest areas. Weta 27: 33–40.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L03] Leschen, R. A. B. 2003. Erotylidae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cucujoidea): phylogeny and review. Fauna of New Zealand 47: 1–108.

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part IV. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 259–380.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[P02] Pollock, D. A. 2002. Melandryidae Leach 1815. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 417–422. CRC Press.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RS15] Robertson, J. A., A. Ślipiński, M. Moulton, F. W. Shockley, A. Giorgi, N. P. Lord, D. D. McKenna, W. Tomaszewska, J. Forrester, K. B. Miller, M. F. Whiting & J. V. McHugh. 2015. Phylogeny and classification of Cucujoidea and the recognition of a new superfamily Coccinelloidea (Coleoptera: Cucujiformia). Systematic Entomology 40: 745–778.

[W42] Westwood, J. O. 1842. On various coleopterous insects from western Africa belonging to the section Heteromera. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 117–122.

[Y02a] Young, D. K. 2002a. Archeocrypticidae Kaszab 1964. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 401–402. CRC Press.

[Y02b] Young, D. K. 2002b. Prostomidae Horn 1888. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 510–511. CRC Press.

[Y02c] Young, D. K. 2002c. Synchroidae Horn 1888. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 512–513. CRC Press.

[YP02] Young, D. K., & D. A. Pollock. 2002. Tetratomidae Billberg 1820. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 413–416. CRC Press.

 

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