Tenthredinoidea

 Female common pine sawfly Diprion pini, copyright Entomart.

Belongs within: Eusymphyta.
Contains: Pergidae, Argidae, Tenthredinidae.

The Tenthredinoidea are the most diverse living lineage of sawflies with larvae feeding on a wide variety of plant species, including ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms. Representatives have the pronotum deeply curved, with lateral concavities for reception of prothoracic spiracle, and the fore wing has crossvein 2r-rs distad of 2rs-m (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Notable subgroups of the Tenthredinoidea include the Diprionidae, conifer-feeding sawflies with more than thirteen antennal segments, the antennae being serrate in females and pectinate or bipectinate in males. The Cimbicidae have clubbed antennae and a laterally carinate abdomen (Richards & Davies 1977); their larvae feed externally on woody flowering plants. The Blasticotomidae are a small family found in the Palaearctic realm whose larvae are stem borers in ferns. The fossil record of Tenthredinoidea extends to the early Jurassic, where they are represented by Pseudoxyelocerus bascharagensis from the early Toarcian of Luxembourg (Nel et al. 2004).

Tenthredinoidea [Strophandria]
    |  i. s.: Aproceros leucopodaPK17
    |--XyelotomidaeNPH04
    |    |--Pseudoxyelocerus Nel, Petrulevicius & Henrotay 2004NPH04
    |    |    `--*P. bascharagensis Nel, Petrulevicius & Henrotay 2004NPH04
    |    |--Xyelotoma Rasnitsyn 1968NPH04
    |    |    `--*X. nigricornis Rasnitsyn 1968NPH04
    |    |--Xyelocerus Rasnitsyn 1968NPH04
    |    |    `--*X. admirandus Rasnitsyn 1968NPH04
    |    |--Pseudoxyela Rasnitsyn 1968NPH04
    |    |    `--*P. heteroclita Rasnitsyn 1968NPH04
    |    |--Dahurotoma Rasnitsyn 1990NPH04
    |    |    `--*D. robusta Rasnitsyn 1990NPH04
    |    |--Vitimilarva Rasnitsyn 1969NPH04
    |    |    `--*V. paradoxa Rasnitsyn 1969NPH04
    |    `--Kuengilarva Rasnitsyn 1990NPH04
    |         `--*K. inexpectata Rasnitsyn 1990NPH04
    `--+--Liaotoma Ren et al. 1995NPH04
       |    `--*L. linearis Ren et al. 1995NPH04
       |--Leridatoma Rasnitsyn & Ansorge 2000NPH04
       |    `--*L. pulcherrima Rasnitsyn & Ansorge 2000NPH04
       |--Davidsmithia Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990 (see below for synonymy)NPH04
       |    `--*D. suni (Hong 1982) [=*Protenthredo suni, *Thomasia suni]NPH04
       |--Undatoma Rasnitsyn 1977NPH04
       |    |--*U. dahurica Rasnitsyn 1977NPH04
       |    |--U. bicolor Rasnitsyn & Jarzembowski 1998NPH04
       |    |--U. rudwickensis Rasnitsyn & Jarzembowski 1998NPH04
       |    |--U. stigmatica Rasnitsyn & Jarzembowski 1998NPH04
       |    |--U. taksha Rasnitsyn 1990NPH04
       |    `--U. undurgensis Rasnitsyn 1990NPH04
       `--+--BlasticotomidaeHR11
          |    |--Blasticotoma filicetiPK17
          |    `--Runaria reductaHR11
          `--+--+--ElectrotomaZ02 [ElectrotomidaeGE05]
             |  |    `--E. succini Rasnitsyn 1977P92
             |  `--+--PergidaeGE05
             |     `--ArgidaeGE05
             `--+--TenthredinidaeHR11
                `--+--CimbicidaeHR11
                   |    |--Corynis crassicornisHR11
                   |    |--Abia Leach 1817BD17, M99
                   |    |    |--A. aenea (Klug 1829)M99
                   |    |    |--A. fasciataMS01
                   |    |    |--A. loniceraeBD17
                   |    |    |--A. nigricornisMS01
                   |    |    `--A. sericea (Linné 1758)M99
                   |    `--Cimbex Olivier 1789L90
                   |         |--C. axillarisR26
                   |         |--C. femorataL90
                   |         |--C. jurinaeR26
                   |         |--C. lutea (Linnaeus 1758)L02, L58 [=Tenthredo luteaL02]
                   |         |--C. marginataR26
                   |         |--C. montanaR26
                   |         |--C. obscuraR26
                   |         |--C. olivieriR26
                   |         |--C. rubidaPK17
                   |         |--C. sericeaR26
                   |         `--C. variabilisA83
                   `--DiprionidaeHR11
                        |--Monoctenus juniperiHR11
                        |--Gilpinia Benson 1939RD77, M99
                        |    |--G. hercyniaeF92
                        |    `--G. polytoma (Hartig 1837)M99
                        |--NeodiprionTW05
                        |    |--N. abietisFM80
                        |    |--N. banksianaG38
                        |    |--N. leconteiBD17
                        |    |--N. sertiTM96
                        |    `--N. tsugaeG38
                        `--Diprion Schrank 1802PK17, M14 [incl. Lophyrus Latreille 1802 non Poli 1791RD77, L02]
                             |--D. frutetorumF92
                             |--D. hercyniaeC81
                             |--‘Lophyrus’ juniperiR26
                             |--D. laricisF92
                             |--D. pallidusF92
                             |--D. pini (Linnaeus 1758)A71, L58 [=Tenthredo piniL02, *Lophyrus piniL02]
                             |--D. polytomumF92
                             `--D. rufusF92

Davidsmithia Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990 [=Protenthredo Hong 1982 non Pongracz 1928, Thomasia Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990 nec Poche 1908 nec Lambert 1918 nec Frederiks 1929; Protenthredinidae]NPH04

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A83] Adolph, E. 1883. Zur Morphologie der Hymenopterenflügel. Zugleich ein Beitrag zu den Fragen der Speciesbildung und des Atavismus. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlichen Leopoldinisch-Carolinischen Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher [Nova Acta Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae Germanicae Naturae Curiosorum] 46 (2): 41–132, pls 1–6.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BD17] Branstetter, M. G., B. N. Danforth, J. P. Pitts, B. C. Faircloth, P. S. Ward, M. L. Buffington, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula & S. G. Brady. 2017. Phylogenomic insights into the evolution of stinging wasps and the origins of ants and bees. Current Biology 27: 1019–1025.

[C81] Caltagirone, L. E. 1981. Landmark examples in classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 26: 213–232.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[FM80] Futuyma, D. J., & G. C. Mayer. 1980. Non-allopatric speciation in animals. Systematic Zoology 29 (3): 254–271.

[G38] Gahan, A. B. 1938. Notes on some genera and species of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (8): 209–227.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L90] Lesne, P. 1890. Communication suivante sur le genre Cimbex. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: cxlviii–cxlix.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M99] Magis, N. 1999. Répertoire des mouches à scie reconnues en Belgique et au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Additions et corrections. Notes Fauniques de Gembloux 36: 85–93.

[M14] Maletz, J. 2014. The classification of the Pterobranchia (Cephalodiscida and Graptolithina). Bulletin of Geosciences 89 (3): 477–540.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[NPH04] Nel, A., J. F. Petrulevicius & M. Henrotay. 2004. New Early Jurassic sawflies from Luxembourg: the oldest record of Tenthredinoidea (Hymenoptera: “Symphyta”). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (2): 283–288.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[TM96] Tsunoda, T., & K. Mori. 1996. Seasonal activity of a few sympatric ticks (Ixodidae) on plants. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 37–41. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

 

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