Tephritoidea

Signal fly Rivellia sp., copyright Stephen Cresswell.

Belongs within: Schizophora.
Contains: Lonchaeidae, Richardiidae, Piophilidae, Ulidiidae, Tephritidae, Pyrgotidae.

The Tephritoidea are a group of acalyptrate flies united by the reduction or loss of sternite 6 in the male, the presence in females of anterior rod-like apodemes on sternites 4 to 7, and division of the female tergosternite 7 into two sections, with the anterior section forming a tubular oviscape and the posterior section comprising two pairs of longitudinal taeniae. Many tephritoids have strikingly patterned wings that are held outwards in display.

Members include the Platystomatidae, signal flies, a varied group with often metallic-coloured bodies characterised by the absence of frontal setae or of any extension of the posterior apex of wing cell cup, and the presence of setulae along the entire length of vein R1 (Whittington 2010). Many platystomatids exhibit reduction in the abdominal tergites. The Scholastinae are distinguished from other platystomatids by a valvate closure of the ptilinal suture and a broad lunule. The Ctenostylidae are nocturnal, long-legged flies with a large head, nearly the same size as the thorax (Korneyev 2010). The Tachiniscidae are tropical parasitoids (the only species whose larva has been identified has been raised from immature saturniid moths) that have often been treated as a subfamily of Tephritidae.

<==Tephritoidea [Otitoidea]WT11
    |--+--LonchaeidaeWT11
    |  `--RichardiidaeWT11
    `--+--PiophilidaeWT11
       `--+--UlidiidaeWT11
          `--+--+--+--TephritidaeWT11
             |  |  `--+--PyrgotidaeWT11
             |  |     `--Tachiniscidae [Tachiniscinae]WT11
             |  |          |--Tachinisca cyaneiventrisN10
             |  |          |--Neortalotrypeta bicolorN10
             |  |          |--Agnitrena ignicepsN10
             |  |          |--Ischyropteron Bigot 1889N10, B89a [=Calopteromyia Bigot 1889B89b]
             |  |          |    `--*I. nigricaudatum Bigot 1889B89a [=*Calopteromyia nigricaudataB89b]
             |  |          `--ProtortalotrypetaN10
             |  `--Ctenostylidae [Ctenostylinae, Lochmostyliinae]WT11
             |       |--Nepaliseta ashleyiK10, WT11
             |       |--Furciseta plaumanniK10
             |       |--*Ctenostylum rufumK10
             |       |--SinolochmostyliaK10
             |       |--TauroscypsonK10
             |       |    |--T. andinaK10
             |       |    `--T. guianaK10
             |       |--LochmostyliaK10
             |       |    |--*L. borgmeieriK10
             |       |    `--L. lopesiK10
             |       `--RamulisetaK10
             |            |--R. ashleyiK10
             |            |--R. lindneriO98
             |            `--R. palpiferaO98
             `--Platystomatidae [Achiasidae]WT11
                  |  i. s.: GiraffomyiaGE05
                  |         LamprogasterCM91
                  |           |--L. imperialisZS10
                  |           |--L. semicyanea [=Dryomyza semicyanea]O98
                  |           `--L. violaceaC91
                  |         AchiasW10
                  |           |--A. australisCM91
                  |           |--A. kimiO98
                  |           |--A. minaxO98
                  |           |--A. oculata [=Diopsis (Achias) oculata]G20
                  |           `--A. rothschildiGE05
                  |         PlagiostenopterinaW10
                  |         Euprosopia tenuicornisCM91
                  |         Elassogaster linearisCM91
                  |         DuomyiaCM91
                  |         Lenophila dentipesCM74
                  |         AsyntonaO98
                  |         Cleitamia astrolabeiO98
                  |         ZygaenulaO98
                  |         PterogeniaO98
                  |         NaupodaO98
                  |         Atopognathus complensO98
                  |         Trigonosoma decorumO98
                  |--PhasiamyaO98 [TrapherinaeW10]
                  |--PlastotephritinaeW10
                  |--ScholastinaeW10
                  |    |--NeohemigasterO98
                  |    |--MesocteniaO98
                  |    `--ScholastesO98
                  |         |--S. foordiRJ93
                  |         `--S. lonchiferO98
                  `--Platystomatinae [Angitulinae]W10
                       |--Himeroessa pretiosaW10, S87
                       |--Angitula nigraO98
                       |--Pogonortalis docleaO98, S87
                       |--Platystoma Meigen 1803BR05
                       |    |--P. lugubre [incl. P. umbrarum]RD77
                       |    `--P. seminationis [=Micropeza (Platystoma) seminationis]G20
                       |--AmphicnephesW10
                       |    |--A. pullusS87
                       |    `--A. stellatusW10
                       |--SenopterinaW10 [=StenopterinaS87; incl. BricinniaW10, BricinniellaW10]
                       |    |--S. brevipesW10
                       |    |--S. caerulescensW10
                       |    `--S. mexicanaW10
                       `--RivelliaW10
                            |--R. basilarisBM76
                            |--R. bosciR13
                            |--R. flavimanaW10
                            |--R. inaequataW10
                            |--R. occultaW10
                            |--R. syngenesiaeWT11
                            `--R. trigonaBM76

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B89a] Bigot, J.-M.-F. 1889a. Novum genus Dipterorum, ex Trypetidis. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: xxix–xxx.

[B89b] Bigot, J.-M.-F. 1889b. Ischyropteron. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: xciii.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[CM74] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1974. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 91–96. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K10] Korneyev, V. A. 2010. Ctenostylidae (ctenostylid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 963–969. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[N10] Norrbom, A. L. 2010. Tephritidae (fruit flies, moscas de frutas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 909–954. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S87] Steyskal, G. C. 1987. Platystomatidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 809–812. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[W10] Whittington, A. E. 2010. Platystomatidae (signal flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 903–907. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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