Terebra

Terebra taurina, copyright Eddie Hardy.

Belongs within: Terebridae.

Terebra is a genus of auger shells with a very high spire, more than twice the height of the aperture. The genus has historically been very broadly defined and its boundaries relative to other terebrids remains uncertain. Most species lack poison glands and an associated radular apparatus, instead having an accessory feeding organ that grasps prey and pulls it into the labial cavity. However, the Brazilian species Terebra imitatrix combines both poison glands and the accessory feeding apparatus (Auffenberg & Lee 1988).

Synapomorphies (from Simone 2011): Spire high. Eyes situated at tentacle tips. Pallial cavity with long posterior region lacking gill. Salivary glands very small. Exophallic penis present near median line. Anterior visceral gonoduct with long narrow part.

Terebra Bruguière 1789 (see below for synonymy)BK11
|--T. taurina (Lightfoot 1786)S11
`--+--+--T. crassireticula Simone 1999S11
| `--T. leptapsis Simone 1999S11
`--+--T. spirosulcata Simone 1999S11
`--+--T. brasiliensis (Smith 1873)S11
`--+--T. dislocata Say 1822S11 [=Cerithium dislocatumC64]
`--T. gemmulata Kiener 1839S11

Terebra incertae sedis:
*T. subulata (Linnaeus 1758)BR17 (see below for synonymy)
‘Buccinum’ acusH43b
T. affinis Gray 1834 (see below for synonymy)W94
T. alba Gray 1834H43b
T. albulaH43b
T. allyni Bratcher & Burch 1970BC01
T. alveolata Hinds 1844W94
T. amanda Hinds 1844 (see below for synonymy)W94
T. amoena Deshayes 1859 [incl. T. andamanica Melvill & Sykes 1898, T. specillata Hinds 1860]W94
T. angelli (Gibson-Smith & Gibson-Smith 1984) [=Strioterebrum angelli]BC01
T. anilis (Röding 1798) (see below for synonymy)W94
T. anomala Gray 1834H43b
T. areolata (Link 1807) [incl. T. muscaria Lamarck 1822]W94
T. argus Hinds 1844W94
T. aspera Hinds 1843H43a [incl. T. petiveriana Desh. 1859C64]
T. assecla (Iredale 1924)W94
T. australis Smith 1873H09
T. babylonia Lamarck 1822WG71 [incl. T. striata Gray 1834 nec Basterot 1825 nec Quoy & Gaimard 1833H43b]
T. ballina (Hedley 1915)W94
T. bernardi Deshayes 1857H09
T. bicincta Hinds 1844F27
‘Buccinum’ bifasciatumH43b
T. bifrons Hinds 1843H43a
T. boucheti Bratcher 1981W94
T. bratcherae Cernohorsky 1987W94
T. bridgesi Dall 1908 [incl. T. (Strioterebrum) dushanae Campbell 1964]BC01
T. caddeyi Bratcher & Cernohorsky 1982W94
T. caelata Adams & Reeve 1850H09
T. canalisF27
|--T. c. canalisF27
`--T. c. wouveri Finlay 1927 [=T. canalis var. costata nec Borson 1823 nec Lea 1833 nec Hutton 1885]F27
T. cancellata Quoy & Gaimard 1833H09
T. ‘cancellata’ Gray 1834 non Quoy & Gaimard 1833H43b
T. carolae Bratcher 1979BC01
T. casta Hinds 1843H43a
T. calenifera [incl. Cerithium bicorona]H86
T. cerithina Lamarck 1822 [incl. T. pulchra Hinds 1844, T. spaldingi Pilsbry 1921]W94
T. chlorata Lamarck 1822 [incl. T. knorrii Gray 1834]W94
T. cinctella Deshayes 1859W94
T. cinereaC64 (see below for synonymy)
T. cingulaH43b
T. cingulifera Lamarck 1822W94 [incl. T. punctulataH43b]
T. circumcincta Deshayes 1857 [=Perirhoe circumcincta]C80
T. columellaris Hinds 1844 [incl. T. carnicolor Preston 1908]W94
T. commaculata (Gmelin 1791)MG-H11 [=Buccinum commaculatumH43b; incl. T. myuros Lamarck 1822W94, T. scabrellaH43b]
T. consors Hinds 1844 [incl. T. glabra Deshayes 1857, T. virginea Deshayes 1857]W94
T. conspersa Hinds 1844W94
T. constrictaH43b
T. copula Hinds 1843H43a
T. corrugata [incl. T. punctata Gray 1843]H43b
T. costata Borson 1823F27
T. ‘costata’ Lea 1833 non Borson 1823F27
T. crenifera Deshayes 1859PP78
T. crenulata (Linnaeus 1758)WG71 (see below for synonymy)
T. cumingii Deshayes 1857W94
T. cuspidata Hinds 1843H43a
T. dimidiata (Linnaeus 1758)WG71 (see below for synonymy)
T. dussumieriiH43b
T. eburnea Hinds 1843H43a
T. elata Hinds 1844PP78
T. exiguoides Schepman 1913W94
T. fatua Hinds 1843H43a
T. feldmanni (Bolten 1798) [=Epitonium feldmanni]H09
T. felina (Dillwyn 1817)WG71 (see below for synonymy)
T. fenestrata Hinds 1844MG-H11
T. fernandesi Bouchet 1982BC01
T. formosa Desh. 1859C64
T. fortunei Deshayes 1857 [incl. T. multistriata Schepman 1913]W94
T. frigata Hinds 1843 [=T. gracilis Gray 1834 (preoc.)]H43b
T. fujitaiFG19
T. funiculata Hinds 1844 [incl. T. archimedis Deshayes 1859, T. langfordi Pilsbry 1921]W94
T. fuscata [incl. T. plicaria, T. striolata]H43b
T. fuscomaculataH43b
‘Buccinum’ geminumH43b
T. glauca Hinds 1844 [incl. T. dorothyae Bratcher & Burch 1970]BC01
T. granulataH43b
T. granulosaH43b
T. guttata (Röding 1798) [incl. T. laevis Gray 1834, T. occulatum Dillwyn 1817, T. sculptilis Pease 1869]W94
T. hancocki Bratcher & Burch 1970BC01
T. hastata [=Buccinum hastatum]H43b
T. heddingtonensisH43b
T. heunahiana [=Loxonema heunahiana]H43b
T. imitatrix Auffenberg & Lee 1988BC01
T. inconstans Hinds 1843H43a
T. insignis Dsh. 1859C64
T. inversaF27
|--T. i. inversaF27
`--T. i. oakleyana Finlay 1927 [=T. inversa var. costata nec Borson 1823 nec Lea 1833 nec Hutton 1885]F27
T. jacksoniana (Garrard 1976) [=T. fictilis Hedley 1900 non Hinds 1844]W94
T. jacquelinae Bratcher & Burch 1970 [incl. T. hertleini Bratcher & Burch 1970]BC01
T. jenningsi Burch 1965W94
T. jukesi Deshayes 1857H09
T. kilburni Burch 1965W94
T. koreanaZLK11
T. laevigata Gray 1834H43b
T. lanceata [=Buccinum lanceatum]H43b
T. larviformis Hinds 1859C64
T. lauretanae Tenison Woods 1878 [incl. T. lauretanae tabifica Iredale 1925]W94
T. lepida Hinds 1843H43a
T. ligata Hinds 1843H43a
T. lima Deshayes 1857 [incl. T. loebbeckeana Dunker 1877]W94
T. lineataH43b
T. lineolata [=Buccinum lineolatum; incl. B. bellangeri]H43b
T. lingualis Hinds 1843H43a
T. loroisiC64
T. luctuosa Hinds 1843H43a [=Subula luctuosaC64]
T. mariesi Smith 1880W94
T. marmorata Deshayes 1859H09
T. marrowae Bratcher & Cernohorsky 1982W94
T. martini Vredenburg 1925 [=T. bicincta Martin 1879 non Hinds 1844]F27
T. maryleenae Burch 1965BC01 [=Hastula maryleeaeAL88; incl. T. tobagoensis Usticke 1969BC01]
T. melamans (Iredale 1929)W94
T. melanoidesH43b
T. mera Hinds 1843H43a
T. micans Hinds 1843H43a
T. monilis (Linnaeus 1771)H43b, W94 [=Buccinum monileH43b]
‘Buccinum’ murinum Linnaeus 1758H43b, L58
T. nassoides Hinds 1843H43a
T. nebulosa (Sowerby 1825)WG71
T. nexilis [incl. Melania arcuata]H43b
T. nimbosa Hinds 1843H43a
T. nitida Hinds 1844 (see below for synonymy)W94
T. nubeculataH43b
T. obesa Hinds 1843H43a
T. oculataH43b
T. ornatum (Martyn 1786) [=Buccinum ornatum]H09
T. ‘ornata’ Gray 1834 non Buccinum ornatum Martyn 1786PP78
T. paucincisa Bratcher 1988BC01
T. paucistriata Smith 1873W94
T. penicillata Hinds 1843H43a
T. pertusa (Born 1778)MG-H11 [=Buccinum pertusumH09; incl. T. undataH43b]
T. picta Hinds 1844W94
T. plicata Gray 1834H43b
T. plicatula [=Buccinum plicatula]H43b
T. plumbea Quoy & Gaimard 1833 [incl. T. (Strioterebrum) hoffmeyeri Abbott 1952]BC01
T. polygyra Conrad 1834H43b
T. polygyrata Deshayes 1859 [incl. T. ambrosia Melvill 1912]W94
T. portlandicaH43b
T. pretiosa Reeve 1842R42
‘Buccinum’ proximatumH43b
T. pseudopertusa Bratcher & Cernohorsky 1985W94
T. punctatostriata Gray 1834 [incl. T. exulta Iredale 1931]W94
T. quoygaimardi Cernohorsky & Bratcher 1976 (see below for synonymy)W94
T. radula Hinds 1843H43a
T. rancheria Bratcher 1988BC01
T. raphanulaH43b
T. robusta (Hinds 1844) [incl. T. macrospira Li 1930]BC01
T. rufocinereaC64 [incl. T. petitiiH43b, T. rudis Gray 1834C64, H43b]
T. russetae (Garrard 1976)W94
T. rustica Hinds 1843H43a
T. salleana Desh. 1859C64
T. sandwizensisH43b
T. scalarina [=Buccinum scalarinum, Fusus scalarinus]H43b
T. senegalensis [incl. T. striatula]H43b
T. simplex Conrad 1830F27
T. spectabilis Hinds 1844H09
T. striata Basterot 1825H43b
T. strigata Sowerby 1859 [=Subula strigata]C64
T. strigosa [incl. Buccinum elongatum, T. elongata, T. flammea, T. incomparabilis Desh. 1859, T. zebra]C64
T. succincta (Gmelin 1791)W94
T. succinea Hinds 1844W94
T. tahitensis Gray 1834 [=Buccinum tahitense]H43b
T. taylori Reeve 1860H09
T. telegdi Finlay 1927 (see below for synonymy)F27
T. tenera Hinds 1844H09
T. tenisoni Finlay 1827 [=T. simplex Tenison-Woods 1876 nec Conrad 1830 nec Carpenter 1865]F27
T. tessellata Gray 1834H43b
T. textilis Hinds 1844 (see below for synonymy)W94
T. tricincta Smith 1877 [incl. T. tokunagai Oyama & Takemura 1961]W94
T. tricolor [incl. T. taeniolata]H43b
T. triseriata Gray 1834 [incl. T. praelonga Deshayes 1859]W94
T. tristis Deshayes 1859W94 (see below for synonymy)
T. troendlei Bratcher 1981BC01
T. tuberculosa Hinds 1844 [incl. T. cracilenta Li 1930, T. gracilenta, T. tenuis Li 1930]BC01
T. tuberosa Hinds 1843H43a
T. turrita (Smith 1873)H09
T. turschi Bratcher 1981BC01
T. undulata Gray 1834WG71
T. varicosa Hinds 1843H43a
T. variegata Gray 1834BC01 (see below for synonymy)
T. venilia Tenison Woods 1880W94
T. venosa Hinds 1843H43a
T. venustaH43a
T. vetustaH43b
T. vicdani Kosuge 1981W94
T. violascens Hinds 1844W94
T. vulcani [incl. Muricites costatus]H43b
T. walkeri Smith 1899W94

Nomen nudum: Terebra heterostrophaH43b
Terebra sterigma Simone 2011S11

Terebra Bruguière 1789 [=Terebrum Montfort 1810; incl. Panaterebra Olsson 1967, Paraterebra Woodring 1928, Subula Schumacher 1817]BK11

Terebra affinis Gray 1834 [incl. T. flava Gray 1834, T. flavescens Deshayes in Weaver 1960, T. peasii Deshayes 1859, T. puncticulata Deshayes 1859, T. striata Quoy & Gaimard 1833 non Basterot 1825]W94

Terebra amanda Hinds 1844 [incl. T. albomarginata Deshayes 1859, T. straminea Gray 1860, T. unicolor Preston 1908]W94

Terebra anilis (Röding 1798) [incl. T. acuta Deshayes 1857, T. circinata Deshayes 1857, T. rubrobrunnea Preston 1908, T. serotina Röding 1798, T. stramineus Gray in Habe 1964]W94

Terebra cinereaC64 [=Buccinum cinereumH43b; incl. T. aciculinaH43b, T. castaneaC64, T. jamaicensisC64, T. laurina Hinds 1843C64, H43a, T. stylata Hinds 1843C64, H43a]

Terebra crenulata (Linnaeus 1758)WG71 [=Buccinum crenulatumH09; incl. B. candidumH43b, Terebra fimbriata Deshayes 1857W94, T. interlineata Deshayes 1859W94, T. varicosum Gmelin 1791W94]

Terebra dimidiata (Linnaeus 1758)WG71 [=Buccinum dimidiatumH09; incl. T. carnea Perry 1811W94, B. ferrugineumH43b, T. splendens Deshayes 1857W94]

Terebra felina (Dillwyn 1817)WG71 [=Buccinum felinumH43b; incl. T. suffusa Pease 1869W94, B. tigrinum Gmelin 1791H43b, W94, T. tigrinaH43b]

Terebra nitida Hinds 1844 [incl. T. cernica Sowerby 1894, T. plicatella Deshayes 1857, T. sicyodes Melvill & Sykes 1898]W94

Terebra quoygaimardi Cernohorsky & Bratcher 1976 [=T. monile Quoy & Gaimard 1833 non Buccinum monile Linnaeus 1771]W94

*Terebra subulata (Linnaeus 1758)BR17 [=Buccinum subulatumBR17; incl. T. fusca Perry 1811W94, T. tigreum Montfort 1810W94, T. tigrina Gmelin 1859 non Buccinum tigrinum Gmelin 1791W94]

Terebra telegdi Finlay 1927 [=T. simplex v. Telegd 1914 nec Conrad 1830 nec Carpenter 1865 nec Tenison-Woods 1876]F27

Terebra textilis Hinds 1844 [incl. T. exigua Deshayes 1859, T. lhizenensis Pilsbry 1904, T. macgillivrayi Smith 1873, T. roseata Adams & Reeve 1840, T. soulyeti Deshayes 1859, T. subtextilis Smith 1879]W94

Terebra tristis Deshayes 1859W94 [=Pervicacia tristisP61; incl. T. assimilis Angas 1867W94, T. bicolor Angas 1867W94, T. costata Hutton 1885 nec Borson 1823 nec Lea 1833F27b, T. inconspicua Pritchard & Gatliff 1902W94, T. subplicata Cotton 1952W94]

Terebra variegata Gray 1834BC01 [incl. T. africanaC64, T. albocinctaC64, T. armillata Hinds 1843C64, H43a, T. hindsiiC64, T. hupeiC64, T. intertincta Hinds 1843C64, H43a, T. marginataC64, T. (Strioterebrum) melia Pilsbry 1931BC01, T. subnodosaC64]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AL88] Auffenberg, K., & H. G. Lee. 1988. A new species of intertidal Terebra from Brazil. Nautilus 102 (4): 154–158.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C80] Cernohorsky, W. O. 1980. The taxonomy of some Indo-Pacific Mollusca. Part 7. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum 16: 171–187.

[FG19] Fedosov, A. E., M. C. Gutierrez, B. Buge, P. V. Sorokin, N. Puillandre & P. Bouchet. 2019. Mapping the missing branch on the neogastropod tree of life: molecular phylogeny of marginelliform gastropods. Journal of Molluscan Studies 85: 439–451.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H43a] Hinds, R. B. 1843a. On new species of Terebra. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 149–159.

[H43b] Hinds, R. B. 1843b. Synopsis of the genus Terebra. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 159–168.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. Notes on some Australian Tertiary fossils. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 481–482.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis revised 10th ed. vol. 1. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[R42] Reeve, L. 1842. Descriptions of new species of shells figured in the ‘Conchologia Systematica’. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 197–200.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[W94] Wilson, B. 1994. Australian Marine Shells vol. 2. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part Two (Neogastropods). Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

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