Tethinidae

Dasyrhicnoessa sp., from PaDIL.

Belongs within: Ephydroidea.

The Tethinidae are a group of small to medium-sized flies usually associated with coastal marine or saline habitats. They may be distinguished from similar flies by the absence of well-developed genal setae, the presence of a single costal break and a complete cell cup in the wing, and the absence of a preapical dorsal seta on the tibiae (Mathis 2010).

Characters (from Mathis 2010): Small to medium-sized flies, body length 1.6–4 mm; frequently invested with pale yellowish to brown microtomentum. With one to four orbital and zero to four fronto-orbital setae; postocellar setae convergent or absent. Vibrissal seta various, if present usually weak. With one proepisternal seta; one proepimeral seta; anepisternum with one or more setae and some setulae posteriorly. Precoxal bridge present. Wing hyaline to infuscate or pale yellow; C with Sc break only; cell cup present but small; A1 weakened apically, not reaching wing margin. Tibiae lacking preapical dorsal seta. Male terminalia with epandrium bearing two surstyli ventrally; anterior surstylus distinctive; posterior surstylus generally strongly setulose and lobe-like; phallapodeme long, slender; ejaculatory apodeme usually large; phallus usually elongate, ribbon-like, sinuous, subcylindrical, with a more or less dense ventral pubescence, often with several microscopic papillae. Female terminalia with two sclerotised spermathecae; cercus subcylindrical or compressed, sometimes bearing strong, spinelike setulae (pseudacanthophorites); tergites 7 and 7 mostly with characteristic pigmented areas; epiproct generally small, bearing pair of setulae dorsally on apical third; hypoproct large.

<==TethinidaeM10a
| i. s.: ListriomastaxM10a
| MacrocanaceV87
| |--M. australisV87
| `--M. littoreaV87
|--SuffomyiaM10b [ZaleinaeM10a]
|--HoraismopteraV87 [HoraismopterinaeM10a]
| `--H. hennigiV87
|--Apetaenus [Apetaeninae]M10a
| |--A. littoreusM10a
| `--A. watsoniM10a
|--PelomyiinaeM10a
| |--+--Pelomyiella mallochiM10a
| | `--Neopelomyia rostrataM10a
| `--+--PelomyiaM10a
| | |--P. coronataM10a
| | `--P. occidentalisM10a
| `--MasoniellaM10a
| |--M. advenaM10a
| |--M. argentinaensisM10a
| `--M. richardsiM10a
`--TethininaeM10a
|--AfrotethinaM04
|--Plesiotethina Munari 2000M04
| `--*P. australis Munari 2000M04
|--Thitena Munari 2004M04
| `--*T. cadaverina Munari 2004M04
|--Sigaloethina Munari 2004M04
| `--*S. phaia Munari 2004M04
|--Pseudorhicnoessa Malloch 1914 [incl. Macrotethina Malloch 1935]M04
| |--*P. spinipes Malloch 1914 [incl. Tethina (*Macrotethina) tibiseta Malloch 1935, P. tibiseta]M04
| `--P. rattiiM10a
|--Tethina Haliday in Curtis 1837M04 [incl. PhycomyzaV87]
| | i. s.: T. albosetulosaM10a
| | T. flavigenisM10a
| | T. griseaM10a
| | T. hirsuta Munari 2000M04
| | T. horripilansM10a
| | T. nigriseta Malloch 1924 [=Rhicnoessa nigriseta]M04
| | T. pallidiseta Malloch 1935M04
| | T. parvulaM10a
| |--*T. (Tethina) illota (Haliday 1838) [=Opomyza (*Tethina) illota]M04
| `--T. (Rhicnoessa)C-T92
| |--T. (R.) alboguttata Strobl 1900C-T92
| |--T. (R.) ochracea (Hendel 1913)C-T92 (see below for synonymy)
| `--T. (R.) simplex Collin 1966C-T92
`--Dasyrhicnoessa Hendel 1934M04
| i. s.: D. serratula Malloch 1935 (n. d.)M04
|--*D. fulva (Hendel 1913) [=Rhicnoessa fulva]M04
|--D. aquila Munari 2002M04
|--D. atripes Munari 2004M04
|--D. bicolor Munari 2002M04
|--D. boninensis Sasakawa 1995M04
|--D. clandestina Munari 2002M04
|--D. ferruginea (Lamb 1914) [=Rhicnoessa ferruginea, Tethina ferruginea]M04
|--D. fulvescens Malloch 1935M04
|--D. humilis Munari 2004M04
|--D. insularis (Aldrich 1931) (see below for synonymy)M04
|--D. macalpinei Munari 2004M04
|--D. mathisi Munari 2002M04
|--D. ostentatrix Munari 2004M04
|--D. pallida Munari 2004M04
|--D. platypes Sasakawa 1986M04
|--D. sexseriata (Hendel 1913) (see below for synonymy)M04
|--D. tripunctata Sasakawa 1974 [incl. D. phyllodes Sasakawa 1995]M04
|--D. vockerothi Hardy & Delfinado 1980 [incl. D. occidentalis Munari 1986]M04
|--D. yoshiyasui Sasakawa 1986M04
`--D. ciliata groupM04
|--D. ciliata Munari 2004M04
`--+--D. longisetosa Munari 2004M04
`--D. priapus Munari 2004M04

Dasyrhicnoessa insularis (Aldrich 1931) [=Tethina insularis, Rhicnoessa insularis; incl. Dasyrhicnoessa freidbergi Munari 1994, Tethina lasiophthalma Malloch 1933, D. lasiophthalma]M04

Dasyrhicnoessa sexseriata (Hendel 1913) [=Rhicnoessa sexstriata, Tethina sexstriata; incl. Dasyrhicnoessa asymbasia Sasakawa 1995]M04

Tethina (Rhicnoessa) ochracea (Hendel 1913)C-T92 [=Rhicnoessa ochraceaM04; incl. T. canzonerii Munari 1981M04, T. chilensis Malloch 1934M04, Rhicnoessa texana Malloch 1913M04, T. texanaM04]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[C-T92] Carles-Tolrá, M. 1992. New and interesting records of Diptera Acalyptrata from Spain. Part I: Acartophthalmidae, Opomyzidae, Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Carnidae, Tethinidae, Milichiidae and Cryptochetidae. Bull. Annls Soc. R. Belge Ent. 128: 343–353.

[M10a] Mathis, W. N. 2010a. Tethinidae (beach flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1109–1114. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M10b] Mathis, W. N. 2010b. Canacidae (surf flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1115–1119. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M04] Munari, L. 2004. Beach flies (Diptera: Tethinidae: Tethininae) from Australia and Papua New Guinea, with descriptions of two new genera and ten new species. Records of the Australian Museum 56: 29–56.

[V87] Vockeroth, J. R. 1987. Tethinidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1073–1078. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

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