Golf-ball sponge Cinachyra sp., copyright Nick Hobgood.

Belongs within: Tetractinellida.

The Tetillidae, golf-ball sponges, are a widespread group of mostly globular demosponges.

Characters (from Van Soest & Rützler 2002): Typically with spherical growth form, often with characteristic pits (porocalices) containing inhalant and occasionally also exhalant orifices. Cortical region often strengthened by collagen fibers and special cortical megascleres, but may be thin or absent. Skeleton with tetraxonic and monaxonic megascleres (triaenes, huge oxeas) organized in radiate pattern of spicule bundles, often spiralling outwards from centre of body; oxeas, protriaenes and anatriaenes most common, often protruding from surface producing conulose or hairy surface. Porocalices, if present, forming palisade of long spicules, protruding far beyond sponge surface, surrounding porefields or oscular apertures lying in rounded depressions. Microscleres contorted microspined sigmaspires. Reproduction oviparous without larval stage, or viviparous with production of young adults within parent.

|--Paratetilla aruensis Hentschel 1912BJ06
| |--C. australiensis (Carter 1886)MG-H11
| |--C. enigmatica (Burton 1934)FS14
| |--C. schultzei (Keller 1891)FS14
| `--C. tarentina (Pulitzer-Finali 1983)FS14
|--Craniella carteriK96
| |--T. bacca (Selenka 1867) [incl. T. ternatensis Kieschnick 1896]BJ06
| `--T. japonicaC-SC03
`--Cinachyra Sollas 1886SV86
|--C. australiensis Carter 1881FV09
|--C. mertoni Hentschel 1912BJ06
|--C. nuda Hentschel 1912BJ06
|--C. subterranea Van Soest & Sass 1981SV86
`--C. vertex von Lendenfeld 1907BJ06

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BJ06] Barnich, R., & D. Janussen. 2006. Die Typen und Typoide des Naturmuseums Senckenberg, Nr. 86. Type catalogue of the Porifera in the collections of the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 127–144.

[C-SC03] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2003. Phylogeny of Choanozoa, Apusozoa, and other Protozoa and early eukaryote megaevolution. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 540–563.

[FS14] Fromont, J., & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: sponges (Porifera). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 69–100.

[FV09] Fromont, J., & M. A. Vanderklift. 2009. Porifera (sponges) of Mermaid, Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, north Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 89–103.

[K96] Kieschnick, O. 1896. Silicispongiae von Ternate nach den Sammlungen von Herrn Prof. Dr. W. Kükenthal. Zoologischer Anzeiger 19: 526–534.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[MC15] Morrow, C., & P. Cárdenas. 2015. Proposal for a revised classification of the Demospongiae (Porifera). Frontiers in Zoology 12: 7.

Soest, R. W. M. Van, & K. Rützler. 2002. Family Tetillidae Sollas, 1886. In: Hooper, J. N. A., & R. W. M. Van Soest. 2002. Systema Porifera: A guide to the classification of sponges pp. 85–98. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York.

[SV86] Soest, R. W. M. Van, & M. Velikonja. 1986. Porifera. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 30–32. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

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