Ocean sunfish Mola mola, copyright Steve Woods.

Belongs within: Percomorpharia.
Contains: Ostracioidei, Triacanthodidae, Monacanthidae, Balistidae, Tetraodontidae, Diodontidae.

The Tetraodontiformes are a cosmopolitan group of fishes characterised by a small mouth with few, often enlarged teeth or with massive beak-like tooth plates, a small gill opening on the side of the body, scales that are usually modified into spines, enlarged plates, or a carapace, and reduced or absent pelvic fins (Matsuura 2015).

<==Tetraodontiformes [Balistoideo, Plectognathi, Tetraodontoidea, Tetraodontoideo]
    |--Cretatriacanthus guidottiiB-RB13
    |--Plectocretacicus clarae Sorbini 1979B-RB13, P93
    `--+--+--Triodon [Triodontidae, Triodontoidea]M15
       |  |    |--T. antiquus Leriche 1905P93
       |  |    `--T. macropterus Lesson 1831M15
       |  `--+--OstracioideiM15
       |     `--Triacanthoidea [Triacanthoidei]M15
       |          |--TriacanthodidaeM15
       |          `--TriacanthidaeM15
       |               |  i. s.: Protacanthodes ombonii (de Zigno 1884)P93
       |               |--Triacanthus Oken 1817M15
       |               |    |--T. biaculeatus (Bloch 1786)M15 (see below for synonymy)
       |               |    |--T. blochii Bleeker 1852M58
       |               |    |--T. brevirostris Schegel 1850 [incl. T. rhodopterus Bleeker 1861]M58
       |               |    |--T. nieuhofii Bleeker 1852M15 [=Priacanthus nieuhoffiP89a]
       |               |    `--T. striglifer Cantor 1849M58
       |               `--+--Pseudotriacanthus Fraser-Brunner 1941M15
       |                  |    `--P. strigilifer (Cantor 1849)M15
       |                  |--Trixiphichthys Fraser-Brunner 1941M15
       |                  |    `--T. weberi (Chaudhuri 1910)M15
       |                  `--Tripodichthys Tyler 1968M15
       |                       |--T. angustifrons (Hollard 1854)M15
       |                       |--T. blochii (Bleeker 1852)M15
       |                       `--T. oxycephalus (Bleeker 1851)M15
       `--+--Balistoidei [Balistoidea]B-RB13
          |    |--MonacanthidaeB-RB13
          |    `--BalistidaeM15
             |    |--TetraodontidaeM15
             |    `--DiodontidaeB-RB13
             `--Molidae [Moloidea, Moloidei]M15
                  |  i. s.: Diplanchias nasusP89b
                  |         OrthagoriscusP89b
                  |           |--O. molaP89b
                  |           |--O. oblongusP89b
                  |           `--O. oxyuropterusP89b
                  |         EoranzaniaP93
                  |--Eomola bimaxillariaND13
                     |    |--R. laevis (Pennant 1776)M15
                     |    `--R. truncataD56
                     `--+--Austromola angerhoferiND13
                        `--+--Masturus Gill 1884M15
                           |    |--M. lanceolatus (Liénard 1840)M15
                           |    `--M. oxyuropterus (Bleeker 1873)M15
                           `--Mola Koelreuter 1766M15
                                |--M. aculeata [=Orthagoriscus aculeata]P89b
                                |--M. asperaPP89
                                |--M. lanceolataC02
                                |--M. mola (Linnaeus 1758)M15
                                |--M. nasusD56
                                `--M. ramsayi (Giglioli 1883)M15
Tetraodontiformes incertae sedis:
  Trigonodon [Trigonodontidae]P93
    `--T. oweni Sismonda 1849P93
  Eospinus daniltshenkoi Tyler & Bannikov 1992P93
    |--Spinacanthus cuneiformis (de Blainville 1818)P93
    `--Protobalistum imperiale (Massalongo 1857)P93
  Eoplectidae [Zignoichthyidae]P93
    |--Eoplectus bloti Tyler 1973P93
    `--Zignoichthys oblongus (Zigno 1874)P93
  Moclaybalistes danekrusNE12

Triacanthus biaculeatus (Bloch 1786)M15 [=Balistes biaculeatusM58; incl. T. macrurus Bleeker 1865M58, T. oxycephalus Bleeker 1878M58]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B-RB13] Betancur-R., R., R. E. Broughton, E. O. Wiley, K. Carpenter, A. López, C. Li, N. I. Holcroft, D. Arcila, M. Sanciangco, J. C. Cureton, II, F. Zhang, T. Buser, M. A. Campbell, J. A. Ballesteros, A. Roa-Varon, S. Willis, W. C. Borden, T. Rowley, P. C. Reneau, D. J. Hough, G. Lu, T. Grande, G. Arratia & G. Ortí. 2013. The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes. PLoS Currents Tree of Life April 18 2013. doi: 10.1371/currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288.

[C02] Collette, B. B. 2002. Remoras and sharksuckers. Family Echeneidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 406–409. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[M15] Matsuura, K. 2015. Taxonomy and systematics of tetraodontiform fishes: a review focusing primarily on progress in the period from 1980 to 2014. Ichthyological Research 62 (1): 72–113.

[M58] Munro, I. S. R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region: a check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel “Fairwind” during the years 1948 to 1950. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal 10 (4): 97–369 (reprinted: 1958. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin no. 1).

[ND13] Near, T. J., A. Dornburg, R. I. Eytan, B. P. Keck, W. L. Smith, K. L. Kuhn, J. A. Moore, S. A. Price, F. T. Burbrink, M. Friedman & P. C. Wainwright. 2013. Phylogeny and tempo of diversification in the superradiation of spiny-rayed fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110 (31): 12738–12743.

[NE12] Near, T. J., R. I. Eytan, A. Dornburg, K. L. Kuhn, J. A. Moore, M. P. Davis, P. C. Wainwright, M. Friedman & W. L. Smith. 2012. Resolution of ray-finned fish phylogeny and timing of diversification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (34): 13698–13703.

[PP89] Parona, C., & A. Perugia. 1889. Res Ligusticae. VIII.—Di alcuni Trematodi ectoparasiti di pesci marini. Nota preventiva. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 740–747.

[P93] Patterson, C. 1993. Osteichthyes: Teleostei. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 621–656. Chapman & Hall: London.

[P89a] Perugia, A. 1889a. Elenco dei pesci raccolti dal Dott. Elio Modigliani nelle Isole di Nias e di Sumatra. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 269–277.

[P89b] Perugia, A. 1889b. Sui giovani dell’Orthagoriscus mola. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 365–368.

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