Tetraoninae

 Lesser prairie chicken Tympanuchus pallidicinctus, copyright Greg Kramos.

Belongs within: Phasianidae.
Contains: Lagopus.

The Tetraonidae are the grouse, a group of gamebirds found primarily in colder parts of Eurasia and North America. Grouse are distinguished from other gamebirds by the presence of feathers on the lower leg. Males of the prairie chickens Tympanuchus and the sage grouse Centrocercus have large inflatable sacs on the neck that are used in mating displays. Members of the genus Tetrao are found in cooler parts of the Palaearctic region; males are mostly black birds with red wattles above the eyes. The ruffed grouse Bonasa umbellus of northern North America has a pair of erectile ruffs on either side of the neck and an erectile crest in both sexes.

<==Tetraoninae [Tetraonidae, Urogallinae]
    |  i. s.: Canachites canadensisFP64
    |         Lyrurus Swainson 1832CC10, M02 [Lyrurinae]
    |         Tetrastes Keysserling & Blasius 1840MMJ03, B94 [Tetrastinae]
    |--Bonasa Stephens 1810BKB15, M02
    |    |--B. bonasia (Linnaeus 1758)M02 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--B. sewerzowiBKB15
    `--+--‘Bonasa’ umbellusBKB15
       `--+--+--LagopusBKB15
          |  `--+--CentrocercusBKB15
          |     |    |--C. minimusBKB15
          |     |    `--C. urophasianusBKB15
          |     `--+--‘Dendragapus’ obscurusBKB15
          |        `--TympanuchusBKB15
          |             |  i. s.: T. stirtoniFP64
          |             |--T. cupidoBKB15
          |             |    |--T. c. cupidoCC10
          |             |    |--T. c. americanus (Reichenbach 1853)L81, CC10 [=Cupidonia americanaCC10]
          |             |    |--T. c. attwateriUSDI77
          |             |    `--T. c. pinnatus (Brewster 1885) [=Cupidonia pinnata]CC10
          |             `--+--T. pallidicinctusBKB15
          |                `--T. phasianellus (Linnaeus 1758)BKB15, CC10 [=Tetrao phasianellusCC10, Pedioecetes phasianellusCC10]
          |                     |--T. p. phasianellusCC10
          |                     `--T. p. columbianus (Ord in Guthrie 1815) (see below for synonymy)CC10
          `--+--+--Falcipennis canadensisBKB15
             |  `--DendragapusBKB15
             |       |--D. canadensisJT12
             |       |--D. falcipennisBKB15
             |       `--D. fuliginosusJT12
             `--Tetrao Linnaeus 1758BKB15, M02 [incl. Urogallus Scopoli 1777B94]
                  |  i. s.: T. canadensis Linnaeus 1758L58
                  |         T. cupido Linnaeus 1758L58
                  |         T. marilandicus Linnaeus 1758L58
                  |         T. orientalis Linnaeus 1758L58
                  |         T. salicetiM41
                  |         T. umbellusJ23
                  |         T. urogalloidesC01
                  |--+--T. mlokosiewicziBKB15
                  |  `--T. tetrix Linnaeus 1758BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                  |       |--T. t. tetrixCC10
                  |       `--‘Lyrurus’ t. britannicus Witherby & Lönnberg 1913CC10
                  `--+--T. parvirostrisBKB15
                     `--T. urogallus Linnaeus 1758BKB15, M02 (see below for synonymy)

Bonasa bonasia (Linnaeus 1758)M02 [=Tetrao bonasiaM02, Tetrastes bonasiaT89; incl. Tetrastes praebonasia Jánossy 1974M02, B. praebonasiaM02, Lagopus voinstvenskii Ganea 1972M02]

Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus 1758BKB15, CC10 [=Lyrurus tetrixCC10; incl. Lagopus balcanicus Boev 1995M02, Lyrurus tetrix longipes Mourer-Chauviré 1975M02, Ly. partium Kretzoi 1962M02, Tetrao partiumM02]

Tetrao urogallus Linnaeus 1758BKB15, M02 [incl. T. conjugens Jánossy 1974M02, T. macropus Jánossy 1976M02, T. praeurogallus Jánossy 1969M02, T. rhodopensis Boev 1998M02]

Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus (Ord in Guthrie 1815) [=Phasianus columbianus, Pedioecetes phasianellus columbianus, Podioecetus (l. c.) columbianus]CC10

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Utivázlat [Reiseskizze]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. xii–xli. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[MMJ03] Mayr, G., A. Manegold & U. S. Johansson. 2003. Monophyletic groups within ‘higher land birds’—comparison of morphological and molecular data. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 41: 233–248.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M41] Moore, E. L. 1841. A collection of birds from Newfoundland. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 9: 24.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

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